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Mediaeval Roads: Evidence from Monastic Charters

Note: The maps below are based on the 1913 & 1914 half-inch maps, sheets 27, 28 and the 1925 one-inch map for Edinburgh. With thanks to Ordnance Survey.

Links are provided to the Liber Kelso (Liber Sancte Marie de Calchou) on the Internet Archives and to the Monastic Annals of Teviotdale on the Google Books site.

Precise dates for the charters can be found on Glasgow University's Scottish Charters Project website.

Kelso Abbey
Cranston (below)
Inchcolm Abbey


Dunfermline Abbey

Newbattle Abbey

Road to the Monklands Lochgow, Moorfoot, Gladhouse Edington, near Berwick
Road to Edinburgh Edinburgh

West Binning

Dere Street - Gocelynton Kressewelle (Monkrigg) Kinpont, near Uphall
Dere Street - Colden Bearford
Stockford Crumbrestrother
Gorton Westforton & Drem


This charter dates from the late 1200's and relates to the grant of the lands of East Kranston or Preston to Kelso abbey. It refers to "the road which leads to Haddington" and to "the road that comes from Neucraneston".

Although it contains many placenames, many of these have been lost and this makes it very difficult to identify the boundaries detailed in the charter. Even if we assume the boundaries are those of the eastern part of Cranston parish, it is still difficult to relate the charter to these.

In view of this we will limit ourselves to the parts of the charter that contain the references to see if an approximate idea can be obtained of where the roads ran.

Road to Haddington
The first reference is "...and by the boundary between Preston and Ormeston, beginning at a valley to the south, ascending upwards by a syke as far as an ancient bank, which is the ancient boundary towards the foot of Whitelaw, and so ascending by the said bank directly up to the cross which is situated on the boundary between Preston and Ormeston, and on the road which leads towards Haddington, then from the cross towards the south-east as far as Peth-hevid, and so descending to the stream which is called Wreke, then ascending the same river until it comes to the syke which leads to New Craneston..."
"et per divisas inter Preston et Ormeston, incipiendo ad unam vallem versus austrum, ascendo sursum per syketum usque ad antiquam balcam, quae est antiqua marchia ad pedem del Whitelaw; et sic ascendo per dictam balcam directe usque ad crucem quae stat in marchia inter Preston et Ormeston, in via quae tendit versus Hadington, et a cruce versus austrum orientis usque ad Peth-hevid; et sic descendo in rivulum qui vocatur Wreke; et ascendendo per dictum rivulum quosque veniat ad sycum qui venit de New Craneston"

This occurs after a reference to the Water of Tyne so the presumption must be that it was just east of the river on the boundary of Ormiston. This is confirmed by Forrest's map of Haddingtonshire (SW sheet) which shows Whitelaw Hill at NT 402 672. The old church and presumed settlement of Ormiston (the present day village dates from 1735) were just north of the Cranston parish boundary at NT 411 676.

One possibility is that it was a road between Cranston (sited at NT 394 651) or Pathhead to Haddington but against this is the fact that the charter does not say the boundary followed the road to Pathhead and also that the direction given is south-east rather than south or south-west. Another possibility is that it could have been a route between Dalkeith or Newbattle to Haddington although the alignment with Haddington is not as good as the other possibility.

In view of this there has to be some doubt about the course of the road south of the cross, however, it is clear enough in view of the mention of Whitelaw that from this point the road would have taken a reasonably direct line past Wester and Easter Pencaitland to Haddington, some 8 or 9 miles away.

Road from Neucraneston
The second highway is referred to in the following: "and by the west side of the petary as far as Oxinfalde, from there by the cultivated land called Crossflat, separately by the outer limits of Preston, as far as the road which comes from Neucraneston, and by that road separately by the foot of the slope as far as the old course of the Tyne, until it come by that old course to the water of Tyne, opposite the mill of wester Cranestun below Hogam."
"et per costam petariae in occidentem usque le Oxinfalde; et deinde per culturam quae vocatur Crossflat seorsum per extremitates terrae de Preston, usque in viam quae venit de Neucraneston; et per illam viam seorsum per pedem conclivi usque in veterem cursum de Tyne, quousque venerit per eundem cursum in aquam de Tyne, contra molendinum de Wester Cranestun subtus Hogam."

The context seems to place this in the vicinity of Cranston itself. New Cranston is thought to have been sited about 500 metres east of Cranston itself. This would suggest the road was a local route rather than long distance. If Oxinfalde is the Oxenfoord of today, it is interesting to see that the original meaning was "enclosure for oxen."

Monastic Annals of Teviotdale, page 136,
L. de Calchou charter 244, page 199

In this charter, dating from 1466, Kelso Abbey granted land in Duddingston to a burgess of Edinburgh. The charter reads "...that portion of land in the barony of Dodingston that, on the one hand, lies in front of and is bordered by the via regia between Fegot Myrehede and a certain pile of stones deposited on the eastern side; and on the other, descending eastwards in front of a certain fosse made in past times and bounded by the same stones which extend to the marches of the lands of the village of Wester Dodynston; and from there to the Fegot before it reaches the sea, and towards the foot of the one and the same Leth from the north, and so to the foot of the Leth by the marches, measures and divisions going up as far as the said Fegot Myrhede and the eastern side of the said stones..."
"illam peciam terrae in baronia de Dodingston, prout jacet ex ambabus partibus viae regiae inter le Fegot Myrhede, et quandam congregationem lapidum ibidem depositorum ex parte orientali, ex parte una ; et descendendo ab oriente prout quaedam fossa ex antiquo constructa, et metae in eadem depositae se extendunt usque ad merchias terrarum villae de Wester Dodynston ex parte occidentali, ex parte altera ; et deinde a le Fegot, prout aqua currit in mare, et ad pedem unius Leth ex parte boreali ; et sic a pede de le Leth per merchias, metas, et divisas, ascendendo usque ad dictum le Fegot Myrhede et dictum congregationem lapidum ex parte orientali.."

Monastic Annals of Teviotdale, page 138
L. de Calchou charter 531, page 423

Fegot is the Figget Water, a small stream that runs just east of Arthur's Seat up to Portobello on the coast. The mention of the via regia so close to the Figget Water makes it highly likely that it is to be identified with the "Fishwive's Causeway" which forms the parish boundary between Duddingston and Leith. There is a long held tradition that this was a Roman road heading west from Inveresk.

Inchcolm Abbey: Charter XIII, page 11. Notes page 118. Dated c.1220-1226
Charters of the Abbey of Inchcolm, D E Easson & Angus Macdonald, Scottish History Society, Third Series, Vol. XXXII, 1938.

This charter refers to land "in the territory of Restalrig on the west side of Horstanes and on the south side of the high road between Edinburgh and Leith (alte strate inter Edinburgh et Leth)."

Two routes were established in the 1100's between Holyrood Abbey and the Leith area. In the 1400's the Easter Road route was established when the burgesses of Edinburgh were allowed to pass through the lands of Restalrig to their properties in Leith. There was also a route between Restalrig and Leith.
Leith Walk dates from 1650 when a footpath developed along a rampart built between Calton Hill and Leith to defend against an invasion by Cromwell (see Wikipedia article).

Interpretation The Story of Leith by John Russell, chapter 2 (Electric Scotland site) notes that the land of the charter was Coatfield in South Leith which was part of Restalrig at that time. This means the road (which was in Restalrig) would have been in South Leith. He refers to North Leith (west of the river) belonging to Holyrood Abbey as well as some land on the east of the river, and says that the two main routes between Edinburgh and Leith at that time developed as routes to the abbey.

One road crossed the river at a ford over to Coatfield and continued to the abbey by Coalhill, Bonnington Road and then Broughton Road (this was later known as the Wester Road, as distinct from the Easter Road). The other ran from North Leith by a ford at Bonnyton. He does not say how it continued although it is likely to have joined the other road which was nearby. There would also have been a road from the Canonmills which belonged to the abbey.

Cassel's Old and New Edinburgh (vol.III, p.131) refers to the high road of the charter as being Easter Road (Leith Walk did not exist at that time) but Russell (chapter VIII) says that this developed around 1400 when Edinburgh was allowed to pass through the lands of Restalrig to properties in Leith. This suggests that the road of the charter (dating from the 1220's) was the one that crossed the river over to Coatfield to run from the Coalhill on the line of the later Bonnyton and Broughton Roads to the abbey.

Concordia inter Thomam de Lastalric 7 magistram Ricardum personam de Halis
Agreement between Thomas of Restalrig and Master Richard, parson of Hailes

Register of Dunfermline: Charter 218, page 135, dated 1226

This was an agreement settling a dispute about the mill belonging to Thomas and associated land, and access to the mill. It refers to a great road leading towards the mill.

Places mentioned are the mill, the church, Midelhope, Milnecroft and a large stone. The church at that time was just to the east of Hailes House, as noted by the Rev. W Lockhart in his paper (see below). Midelhope and Milnecroft have disappeared but the large stone is very probably the standing stone (see 1st edition 6” map, Edinburghshire sheet 6) about 400 metres north of the church. The mill would have been on the Water of Leith, well known in later years for the number of mills it could sustain. From the wording of the charter, the mill like the church would have been on the western side of the river, north of the church and south of the standing stone.

It is not immediately clear what the great road was. It is unlikely that a “great road” would run just to the mill although it could well pass it on its course. The likeliest candidate would be the Edinburgh to Lanark road although if it passed the mill it must have ran closer to the Water of Leith than the later Lanark road.

A full translation of the charter is given on the People of Medieval Scotland site, document 4/25/3. Amanda Beam, John Bradley, Dauvit Broun, John Reuben Davies, Matthew Hammond, Michele Pasin (with others), The People of Medieval Scotland, 10931314 (Glasgow and London, 2012) www.poms.ac.uk.
Original text, Registrum de Dunfermelyn, charter 218.
Lockhart, Rev. William, Notes on the Early History of the Parish of Colinton. PSAS, Volume 17 (1882-83), pps 364-71.

Carta de terris nostris in Edinburgo propre castellum assedatur Alexander Ra 7 Thome bordy

Charter of our lands in Edinburgh near the castle leased to Alexander Ra and Thomas Bordy

Register of Dunfermline: Charter 473, page 368. Dated 1468

This charter has a reference to the high street in Edinburgh (vici regij). The high street is also mentioned in charter 474.

Carta de septem acris datum Simon Stury
Charter of 7 acres given to Simon Stury
Register of Dunfermline: Charter 235, page 150. Dated 1340

This refers to a road leading from Musselburgh to Niddrie, viz:
...lying between the west side of the water of Esk and the road which extends from the burgh of Musselburgh towards Niddrie.....
..jacente inter aquam de Esk ex occidentali parte 7 viam se extendentem de Burgo de muskelburgh versus Nudreth….

Niddrie is about 3 miles west of Musselburgh. The Military Survey map of c.1750 shows a road very much on the line of the A6095 which is the most direct route today between the two places. It is likely that the mediaeval road had the same line.

Register of Newbattle Abbey
Additional details of Newbattle charters can be found on the POMS site here. See also The Roads that led by Prestoungrange, Andrew Ralton, Prestoungrange University Press, Haddington 2005 for interesting information on Newbattle Abbey - see no.19 on page.


The road between Newbattle Abbey and their lands in the Monklands. Based on 1935 quarter-inch OS map. With thanks to Ordnance Survey

Newbattle Abbey had received extensive grants of land in what is now Monklands and Carmyle. In order to reach these lands they negotiated rights of way with landowners along the route from Newbattle.
See The Road to the Monklands for further details.

Carta Abbatis sancte Cruce
Charter 6, Page 5

Road from Newbattle area towards Edinburgh Castle. Based on half-inch OS map, sheet 27, 1913. With thanks.
This was a transaction of the mid-1200's between Holyrood Abbey and Newbattle Abbey of some Holyrood land near Dalkeith.

It was specified as follows:
......That part of our land in the feu of Petynreih (Pittendreich) which lies from the eastern side of the king’s public highway which leads from the Monastery of Neubotle towards the castle of the maidens (Edinburgh Castle), namely between the park next to Neubotle and the stream called Balnebuth towards the north and between the said road and the lands of the said monks towards the east…..

.....illam particula terre nostre in feodo de Petyndreih • que iacet ex orientali parte vie regie et publice que ducit a Monasterio de Neubotle• versus castellum puellarum • scilicet inter parcum iuxta Neubotle• et riuulum qui dicitur balnebuth versus aquilone et inter viam predictam et terram dictorum monachorum versus orientem

While this is useful in telling us there was a route between the Abbey and Edinburgh Castle, it is too indeterminate to pinpoint the route that was taken. The abbey itself was on the north side of the South Esk and the road would have crossed Benbught Burn, which may be the Balnebuth of the charter.

Carta Malcolmi Reg
Charter 10, Page 8
R H Hardie, Roads of Mediaeval Lauderdale, p.98 ff.

Course of Dere Street north of Soutra, and the lands of Gocelyn the Cook as determined by Hardie. Parish boundaries in green. Based on quarter-inch OS map, sheet 2, 1936. With thanks.

This was a 12th century charter of King Malcolm IV (r. 1141 1165) gifting the lands of Gocelynton to Newbattle. Gocelyn was the Royal cook. The boundary of the lands were as follows:
namely from the eastern side by right divisions between the land of Craneston and the land of Gocelynton as far as a certain river which separates the previously noted lands, and so by the previously noted divisions between the same lands towards the west as far as the lands of Neubotle which my grandfather King David gave them, and so northwards by right divisions as the land of Gocelynton as far as the land of Neubotle, and from thence eastwards by right divisions between the same lands as far as the via regia called Derestrete, and so by Derestrete northwards as far as a certain deep ditch, and so eastwards by that ditch between Dalkeith and Gocelynton as far as a marsh, from whence by the middle of this mentioned marsh eastwards as far as the bounds of Cousland, and so by the bounds of Cousland as far as the foresaid divisions of Craneston. I wish therefore and advise that the foresaid monks of Newbattle shall hold and possess all the previously noted lands of Gocelynton in perpetual alms…

• scilicet ab orientali parte per rectas divisas inter terram de Cranestou • et terram de Gocelynton • vsque ad riuulum quendam qui separat prenotiatas terras • et sic prenotiatas divisas inter easdem terras versus occidentem usque ad terra de Neubotle quam Rex Dauid auus meus eis dedit • et sic uersus aquilonem per rectas divisas sicut terra de Gocelynton se extendit usque ad terra de Neubotle • deinde uersus orientem per rectas divisas inter easdem terras vsque ad via Regiam que vocatur derestrete • et sic per derestrete versus aquilonem vsque in quondam profundum sicum • et sic uersus orientem per sicum illum inter divisas de Dalketh et de Gocelynton vsque in vnum maresium • deinde per medium memoratu maresium versus orientem usque ad divisas de Cousland • et sic per divisas de Cousland usque ad predictas divisas de Craneston • Volo itaque et precipio vt predicti Monachi de Neubotle • tota prenotatam terram de Gocelynton teneant et possideant in perpetua elemosiniam

This charter has been looked at in some detail by RH Hardie in the Roads of Medieval Lauderdale. He identifies the lands of Gocelynton as that part of Newbattle parish extending into Cranston parish, and east of Dere Street, which must therefore have the line of the minor road from Pathhead through Chesterhill and Whitehill.
[Carta Abbatis de Neubotle data R • de Moravia •]

Charter 269 Page 229 Dated 1321

R H Hardie, Roads of Mediaeval Lauderdale, p. 101-2.

Line of Dere Street near Cowden. Based on 1" map, sheet 74, 1928. With thanks.

This charter mentions Dere Street, namely:
We concede and licence the drawing and leading of water from the moss which is on the west side of a certain road called Dere Street in the main ditch which is a division between our lands and colden...

…..Concessimus licenciam trahendi et deducendi aquam de musso que est in occidentali parte cuisdam vie que dicitur Derstrette in matrice fossam que sit per diuisis inter terram nostram et colden • .

The main ditch would appear to be "the certain deep ditch" of the previous charter and helps confirm the position of Dere Street as being near Whitehill.

These two charters by Patrick and Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie refer to a Stockford on the South Esk near to the abbey and relate to the right of the abbey to have a watercourse to provide water power for a mill.

The Stockford near Newbattle. Based on 1" map, sheet 74, 1928. With thanks.
[pro aque cursu/ for a water course]
Charter 275, Page 233
See Placenames of Midlothian - Newbattle parish for some of the names

Which land begins at the ford called the stokfurd from the northern side of south esk where a boundary stone has been placed and so descending by certain bounds linearly towards the east as far as the divisions of the lands of the said religious called accornhalch where another stone I have placed as a sign I made that he can make himself a general water course through his mill…..

quod terra incipit ad vadum quod vocatur le stokfurd ex aquilonali parte de sowthesk vbi lapidem vnum in meta posui et sic descendendo per certas diuisas linealiter versus orientem vsque ad diuisas terre dictorum religioforum que vocatur le accornhalch vbi alium lapidem per signo posui vt possit libere sibi facere generalem aqua cursum per molendis suis….

[De eodem/ the same]
Charter 276 Page 234
..all that land called the blyndhalch next to the northern side of the south esk beginning in the eastern side to the divisions between my land and that of the said religious which is called the accornhalch and so holding westwards by the foot of that high bank beyond the ford called stokford as far as a certain rock I have placed there [to show] that he can make a general water course for his mill

totam terram illam que vocatur le blyndhalch iacentem ex aquilonali parte de southeske incipiendo
in parte orientali ad divisas inter terram meam et terra dictorum religiosorum que vocatur le accornhalch et sic tenendo uersus occidentem per pedem alte ripe vltra vadum quod vocatur le stokford vsque ad quandam rupem vbi metas posui vt possit libere sibi facere generalem aqua ductum per molendinis suis •

The placename Stockford has not survived but the context of the two charters suggests it was upstream from the abbey, perhaps near present day Newbattle Bridge or Lothian bridge as bridges often replaced earlier fords. The name suggest the use of stakes marking out the course across a river. The abbey itself as on the north side of the South Esk. Norman Dixon in Placenames of MidLothian makes a tentative identification of Acornhaugh with the Ochre Burn, and there is a notably long mill lead nearby. It is not clear what route the ford was linked to.


Charter 36, page 28

This is a charter of William of Lizars in which he adds some land to a grant of his father, relating to a petary in the area of Gorton, namely:
..and by this my present charter confirm to the said monks, two acres of land near to and adjacent on the south side of the road which goes to the said petary, which land extends as far as Wytteriggemyre with pasture for 12 cows.....

et hac presenti carta mei confirmavi dictis Monachis duas acras terre proximo adiacentes ex parte australie vie que ducit ad dictam petariam • que terra extendit se usque in Wytteriggemyre cum pastura ad duodecim vaccas •


Some places mentioned in the charters, including fords. Based on 1" map, sheet 74, 1928. With thanks.

[Terra Templi in Gouerton T • de Malevill data a Gregorio de Lyfuris •]
Original Charter XV, Page 301

This is a charter of William de Lizars confirming a grant made to Thomas son of William de Melville by Gregory de Lizars, namely:
.......six acres of land from the Temple lands held in feu of Gouerton , viz. 2 acres near to his dwelling towards the east, and four acres in the adjacent field near to the path towards the west, which goes from Dalwlsy and leads towards Gouerton.....

scilicit • de sex acris terre • de terra templi • quam tenuit iu feodo de Gouerton • scilicet • duas acras proximas domui sue versus orientem • et quatuor acras in campo iacentes proximas semite versus occidentem • que uenit de Dalwlsy et tendit versus Gouerton

All we can assume from this is a fairly direct track between Dalhousie and Gorton, a distance of about 2 1/2 miles.

PN Midlothian gives the derivation of Gorton as the tun or farm at the dirty ford (page 149 under Lasswade parish).

[Carta de Gouerton per divisas •]
Original Charter XIX, Page 305

This charter of a Thomas Modok relates to some land:
…in the lands of goverton by its right divisions, namely beginning at Kilnedene with dwellings which are located on the west side of Kilnedene, and so by a fosse as far as the red ford which leads to karketyl, and so descending the Holdene as far as an adjacent boundary between the said lands and the land of lord William of St Clair held from me. And so following that boundary as far as bakstaneden and so ascending the Bakstaneden as far as the kilneden along with the adjacent land on the west side of kilneden…
in territorio de goverton per suas rectas diuisas • scilicit incipiendo ad Kilnedene • cum domibus que site sunt ex occidentali parte de le kylnedene • et sic per fossata usque ad rubeum vadum per quod itur apud karketyl • et sic descendendo le Holdene usque ad metam iacentem inter dictam terram et terram domini Willhelmi de sancto claro quam de me tenet •et sic prosequendo illam metam usque le bakstaneden • et sic ascendendo le Bakstaneden • vsque le kilneden • cum adjacente terra ex parte orientali de le kilnedene •

Karketyl is Kirkettle, less than 2 miles south-west of Gorton House. Kilneden (Kilndean) is lost, and although Dixon suggests Bakstaneden is Backdale near West Melville this seems too far distant. The 6" map shows fords: several over the North Esk and one over a burn just west of Kirkettle but which might be the "red ford" is very difficult to say.

Kirkettle, near Auchindinny -see page 152 etc of Place Names of MidLothian


Based on quarter inch OS map, sheet  3, 1923. With thanks.Several charters (25 - 32) deal with grants of land in Lochgow, an area which was a few miles south-east of Penicuik. Charters 28 and 29 mention a ford on the Perdomainesburne (identified as the Tweeddale Burn) somewhere north of Toxside. It is possible however that with the Loch Burn running into the Tweeddale Burn, the ford was one shown on the 6" map as Salterford and close to another ford. Both fords are on the Loch Burn. Assuming the Salterford was on one of the Salter's roads it would have been of some importance.

Also mentioned is Hathyrbrig in charters 31 and 32, possibly bundles of heather placed across boggy ground (cf. DSL Hather). Although some of the placenames like Kingside and Mount Lothian can be recognised they are not enough to identify the location of this "heather bridge" - though it may not be of much importance.

There were also grants of Moorfoot and Gladhouse in free forest, with a grange at Moorfoot, just south of Gladhouse reservoir. Pasture on the west side of Eddleston Water was granted in charter 31.

Although roads/tracks are not mentioned we can assume considerable movement in the area. The Lochgow area would have been near a route to Peebles passing through Howgate and Leadburn, then down the Eddleston Water. While Newbattle could be easily reached from Howgate, it is not clear what route could have been taken. The grange at Moorfoot presumably had a link to the abbey, which may have taken a general northward direction through Temple and Carrington.


Charter 299, Page 266
This refers to what was probably the High Street in Edinburgh (vici regii).

Carta Henrici tendeman •
Charter 48, Page 38

This charter by Henry Tendeman, a merchant of Leith, and his wife gave Newbattle some land in Edinburgh "next to the road which goes to Leith" (proxiam vie per quam itur versus leeth).

Charter 281, Page 238

This charter of the early 1400's mentions a road going between Edinburgh and Leith.

....in Edinburgh next to the road which goes to Leith
.... in villa de Edynburgh iuxta via qua itur versus Leth

As noted here, this road or roads would not have been Leith Walk which dates from the 17th century but one of the other available routes. The Nor' Loch would have forced those coming from the High Street area to skirt it either on the east or west sides.

Carta Hugonis Gyftard
Charter 81, Page 63
This was a charter of Hugh Gifford donating the lands of Cresswell to Newbattle Abbey. it was just to the south-east of Haddington and is now known as Monkriggs. A road is mentioned. It is dealt with under East Lothian here.

BEREFORD (See above map) Charters 87 & 88, Page 66
These charters of of John and Thomas of Morham refer to a mill pond at Bereford and to the firm land of Morham and the ford of Bereford. This ford is probably over the Bearford Burn and on the road called the Stabstone Loan which led to Garvald, and which in part may have been the Monkesgate leading from this locality to a petary in Crumbrestrother. They are dealt with under East Lothian here.

Carta Alexander de Sancto Martin
Charter 102, Page 76 and others
Several charters refer to a petary in Crumbestrother, along with roads and paths. The charters however are very difficult to interpret although one of the roads may be the Monkesgate leading from the granges near Haddington to the petary. They are dealt with under East Lothian here.
Carta Nesi • filii Johannis de lundres •
Charter 107, Page 80 and charter 114

These two charters for a locality just north of Haddington mention a road (probably the same road) in the vicinity of Westforton and Drem. They are dealt with under East Lothian here.

Carta Johannis de Edynton
Charter 205 Page 164

This gave Newbattle the right to travel through Edington on their way to and from Berwick, 12 miles away. The route followed is not certain but could well have been through Ellem and Cranshaws towards the granges at Haddington. They are dealt with under East Lothian here.

Newbattle Register, Charter 308, Page 281. Date 1500

This charter, dating from 1500 refers to the common highway between Linlithgow and West Binning near Uphall. It is dealt with under West Lothian - see here.

Books of Assumption of Thirds of Benefices (Newbattle Register, Page 329)

Kynpont is listed as a property of Newbattle at the time of the Reformation. The name means head of the bridge indicating that there had been a bridge here at one time. Kinpont is located one mile east of Broxburn. The charter is dealt with under West Lothian - see here.