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Statistical Accounts of Scotland

Lanarkshire

Text file only
Old and New Statistical Accounts

Avondale or Strathaven

Carmichael
Culter Glasgow Old or West Monkland
Bertram Shotts

Carluke

Dalserf Gorbals (OSA only) Pettinain
Biggar

Carnwath

Dalziel

Govan Rutherglen
Blantyre Carmunnock Dolphinton Hamilton Stonehouse
Bothwell Carstairs Douglas Lanark Symington

Cadder

Covington & Thankerton Dunsyre Lesmahagow Walston

Cambuslang

Crawford East Kilbride Libberton & Quothquan Wandell & Lammingtoune

Cambusnethan

Crawfordjohn Glasford New or East Monkland Wiston & Roberton

CadderNew MonklandCrawfordCrawfordjohnDouglasWandelWistonCulterSymingtonCarmichaelCovingtonPettinainLibbertonWalstonBiggarDolphintonDunsyreLesmahagowAvondaleEast KilbrideStonehouseCarnwathLanarkGlasfordDalserfCarlukeCarstairsGlasgowGovanRutherglenCarmunnockOld MonklandCambuslangHamiltonCambusnethanShottsDalzielBlantyreBothwell
Avondale (Strathaven)LesmahagowDouglasCrawfordjohnCrawfordEast KilbrideCarmunnockRutherglenGovanGlasgowCadderNew MonklandOld MonklandCambuslangShottsBothwellBlantyreGlasfordHamiltonDalzielCambusnethanCarlukeWiston & RobertonDalserfStonehouseWandel & LamingtonCulterCarnwathCarstairsDunsyreDolphintonCarmichaelLanarkPettinainCovingtonSymingtonLibbertonWalstonBiggar

Old Statistical Account The OSA links below are mostly to GoogleBooks or in some cases to the EDINA site. On EDINA site go to "browse scanned image" to see appropriate page.

New Statistical Account The NSA links below are to this point where the original accounts can be accessed on Google Books. Use the back button on the browser to return to parish account. Alternatively see the EDINA site or the Internet Archive.


Avondale or Strathaven

Strathaven Castle

OSA
Vol.9, p.393ff A Roman road runs on the south side of the Avon and can be followed for several miles. There are also three chapels in the same area, which were probably serviced by the priory at Lesmahagow. Several carriers run to Glasgow each week. The glebe, of four acres, is of little use since two turnpike roads have been built across it. There is a weekly market and several annual fairs.
The writer complains about the roads from Hamilton to Strathaven and the turnpike to Muirkirk, Sanquhar and Dumfries, particularly the latter, saying that its course is badly planned and has cost three times the sum originally estimated, leading to very high tolls. To prevent this, proposed road bills should be circulated beforehand and surveyors work out the best route and contractors submit estimates. There would be benefits if the government took over the turnpikes and if the military were to be employed on the roads it would make them "more hardy and less debauched".
Of the three bridges, one is on the line of the Muirkirk road and was built in the early 1700's by the Duchess of Hamilton. The other two were built by county and parish funds. The statute labour is commuted and the sum raised should be sufficient to keep the roads and the smaller bridges in good order.

NSA p.301
p.303 A Roman road runs through the parish.
p.308 Parochial Economy    Excellent roads. There are turnpikes to Ayr and to Muirkirk and about 60 miles of parish roads - these cost about £300 per year, as well as 30 bridges, mostly too narrow. A person is employed to oversee all roads operations and has done excellent work.
p.309 Means of Communication   There are good communications with Edinburgh, Glasgow, Ayr and Hamilton in contrast with 16 years ago (1819) when travel had to be by horseback or cart or obtaining a post chaise from Hamilton. A new road between Edinburgh and Ayr has been built since that time and there are frequent coaches to these places as well as many post horses and vehicles.
p.313 Miscellaneous Observations    The Duke of Hamilton has been planting hedges along the side of the Ayr and Muirkirk roads.

Bertram Shotts

OSA

Parish road (Fortisset Road)
One of the parish roads (Fortisset Road at NS8663)

Vol.15, page 54 The land on either side of the great road, approaching from the east, is now enclosed and improved. The road, which runs from Edinburgh to Glasgow is straight but with difficult inclines though the trustees have improved this in places, particularly by diverting past the Hirst. There is a new bill which will allow a road between Glasgow and Edinburgh to go via Airdrie and Bathgate, and a road which will leave the Shotts road at Bellshill and rejoin it near Whitburn. Forty years ago the journey from Glasgow to Edinburgh took two days and now just 5 or 6 hours. Horses can also draw greater loads. The statute labour money is insufficient in such a large parish to keep the parish roads in good order.



NSA
p.624

Kirk O'Shotts The old turnpike near Kirk O'Shotts and just a few yards from the later A8. An earlier road ran past the Kirk O'Shotts itself. The M8 has now superseded these three earlier roads.

p.631 There is a penny post at Shotts Works and another may be opened at Sallysburgh (Salsburgh) through which the mail coach passes. There are 17 miles of turnpike in the parish and 20 public coaches drive through it each day.
p.634 Fairs    There are two fairs where horses and cattle are sold, and a weekly market.
Inns    Many of the inns are used by travellers on the journey between Edinburgh and Glasgow.

Biggar
OSA
Vol.1 page 335 Great improvement to the roads. Thirty years ago when the statute labour had to be done in person, the roads were bad as the work was done reluctantly. Now it has been commuted they are much improved. The one turnpike in the parish is beginning to be accepted as its advantages make themselves felt; for example, a cart carrying lead from Leadhills can now carry nearly double the load it used to.

NSA p.354

Biggarp.359 Reference is made to a battle between Wallace and Edward I at Biggar and to an engagement at a bridge in Biggar itself over which Wallace made an escape. The bridge is now called the "Cadger’s Brig". Other instances of armies passing through Biggar are given: before the battle of Roslin in 1302; when Edward II was advancing from Selkirk to Renfrew in 1310; in Cromwell’s times in 1651; and during the rising of 1715.
p.366 Parochial Economy   Biggar has a market, a right dating from 1451.
p.367 Means of Communication   The town has a post office.
Coaches run from Edinburgh to Dumfries and Glasgow to Peebles, with carriers to Edinburgh and Glasgow, as well as carriers from Hawick to Glasgow and Dumfries, Sanquhar and Wigton to Edinburgh.
The Dumfries - Edinburgh turnpike runs through the parish, with another branching off it to join the Edinburgh - Moffat turnpike. £1500 has been spent on it in the last year.
Fourteen miles of excellent parish roads - they cost about £40 a year to maintain.
EllsrighillCorsinconDrevaCrown fordA new road to Broughton would be a benefit especially if it was to continue through Dreva and Craigend to the Crown ford and Peebles as this would avoid the hilly country near Ellsrighill and Corsincon.
There is a need to avoid the steep inclines on either side of the ford over the Carwood burn on the road to Carnwath.
p.371 Fairs   There are three fairs.
Inns   The writer complains about the practice of allowing toll keepers to supplement their income by selling drink, noting that in one case a toll-keeper who had his certificate of character refused by the Minister was still able to obtain a licence.
p.372 Fuel    Coal is brought mostly from Douglas parish, a distance of 14 miles; and sometimes from Wilsontown but carriage costs are high.
Based on the 1935 OS Map. With thanks to Ordnance Survey

Biggar and the House of Fleming, William Hunter, 1867
p. 16 Details of the nearby Roman road.
p. 96 Cadger's Brig
p. 97 Nearby bridge built in 1823 on the turnpike to Dumfries.
p. 128 Wide road led to Castle of Boghall (see also Carnwath below)
p. 277 Mention (late 1700's) that Elsrickle lay a little to the east of the direct road. The Military Survey shows the line of the older road running from Newbiggingmill over to the Biggar road neaer to Townhead and Bank.
p. 302 "An ill made and badly kept road led to the kirk hamlet of Kilbucho.." (Kilbucho was split in 1794 between Culter (Lanarkshire) and Glenholm & Broughton (Peeblesshire).
p. 460 Royal pilgrimages to Whithorn in late 1400's/early 1500's (Margaret, Queen of James III, James IV, V) - probably stayed at Boghall (1/2 mile South of Biggar) and Couthally (1 mile NW of Carnwath) Castles and passed through Biggar. James VI also visited Biggar several times.

Blantyre

Bothwell Castle from the Priory

OSA
Vol. 2, page 220 Ironstone is brought from the River Calder to Glasgow. Coal comes from Cambuslang. There was a priory, dating from before 1296, that was linked to Jedburgh.

NSA p.314
p.315 Ferry-boat at the Blantyre works.
p.325 Distances from Hamilton, (East) Kilbride, Glasgow and Eaglesham are given. Three miles of turnpike and 20 miles of excellent parish roads.
Note: See some fine photos of Blantyre here

 




Bothwell
OSA, vol 16, page 300 - see also page 308 and Roman road page 325
The great road from Glasgow to Edinburgh runs through the parish. It crosses the Calder, then climbs a very steep hill, though this is to be improved. The Glasgow to Carlisle road enters on the west, a little below the Edinburgh road, crosses the Calder and runs through the village to cross the Clyde at Bothwell bridge. A mail coach runs on it daily. Branches lead from the Edinburgh road: three to Hamilton, one to Lanark, and two to Airdrie. There are many statute labour roads paid for by the commutation money which amounts to £80. In all there are about 50 miles of road, 22 of which are turnpike. Bothwell bridge is old and narrow but is to be widened. Two bridges cross the North Calder and three on the South Calder. A small bridge over the South Calder is thought to be Roman and be on the line of Watling Street which was clearly to be seen in its course from the east but is now largely destroyed by the plough.

NSA p.765
p.779 At the time of the Battle of Bothwell Bridge (1679), the bridge was narrow and had a portal in the middle with gates.
p.789 Bothwell Bridge is very old. There is an act dating from 1647 for repairs to the bridge. A few years ago its width was increased from 12 feet to 32 feet.
Near to Bothwellhaugh there is a bridge over the South Calder, thought to be Roman and on the line of Watling Street.
p.794 Among the trades carried on in the parish in 1836 there were 27 carters, 4 toll keepers, and a few horse-keepers, road-makers, coachmen and carriers.
p.797 Hamilton is the nearest market town and there are post offices in Bothwell, Bellshill and Holytown.
Means of Communication   Seventeen miles of turnpikes and 33 miles of parish roads. A list is given of the statute labour conversion money over the previous 15 years. Annual expenditure was about £350.
There are regular coaches to Glasgow, Carlisle, Edinburgh, Hamilton, Lanark and Strathaven. A railway is being built at present.

Cadder
OSA
Vol.8, page 475 There is much whin rock in the parish which is very suitable for making roads. Four miles of the Edinburgh to Glasgow post-road runs through the parish, and a new turnpike has been made to Cumbernauld and Falkirk which is much shorter than the road by Kirkintilloch and Kilsyth and more level. The statute labour rate is now set at 18/- per ploughgate and 2/- for each cottager.
Bishop Briggs mentioned. There are 284 carts in the parish.

NSA p.398
p.407 The name of Bishopbriggs or bridge dates back to the time when much of the parish was ecclesiastical property.
p.410 Means of Communication    Post offices used are at Glasgow and Kirkintilloch.
Two good turnpike roads run through the parish: the Inchbelly road, via Kirkintolloch and the Cumbernauld road. There are 5 bridges, two of which are over the railway.
Details are given of the Forth and Clyde canal and the two railways running through the parish, viz. the Kirkintilloch railway and the Garnkirk and Glasgow railway.
There are 35 miles of parish roads - they are in poor condition, badly routed, hilly and narrow, and not properly run despite £10 per mile being spent on them each year.

Cambuslang
OSA
Vol.5, page 259 Dung is brought in from Glasgow and lime from (East) Kilbride for the purposes of manuring the land. Glasgow is by far the greatest market for the surrounding parishes.
There is a great contrast between the parish in 1750 and 1790. Thus the roads were narrow and rough and could hardly be used in the summer by carts, and almost impassable in winter with horses unlike 1790. Now there are about 170 large well-made carts, unlike 1750 when there were only a few small carts with wooden wheels. There has been much effort and expenditure on roads.
The Glasgow to Hamilton road was originally made under the statute labour system but it was improved a few years ago and is now maintained by a toll near Glasgow. There are two statute labour roads, running north-south and used for the carriage of lime, coal and ironstone and some bridges over small streams, with two over the Calder. An old bridge called Prior bridge is thought to have been connected with the Priory in Blantyre.
There were a number of ruined buildings near the summit of Dechmont Hill, but in the past ten years the stones have been used for building dykes and roads. The owner of the land observed the foundations of a circular building, 24 feet in diameter on the summit. Given the commanding views it might have been a watch-tower.
Details of the Cambuslang Wark of 1742 are given, when huge crowds came from all over to attend a religious revival.

NSA p.416
p.425 The "Cambuslang Work", a notable religious revival in 1742, is detailed. This was attended by people from all over central Scotland and further afield.
p.431 There was a spittal in the east of the parish.
p.437 Means of Communication    Rutherglen is the nearest market town and well attended by people from Cambuslang. There is also a market in Hamilton which is further away.
The Glasgow - Hamilton and Glasgow - Muirkirk turnpikes run through the parish. There are 12 miles of parish roads.
The rent paid in 1835 for the Greenlees toll was £425 and for the Cambuslang toll was £575. There are two coaches each day between Hamilton and Glasgow and three times a week to (East) Kilbride and Strathaven.
There are 7 bridges in the parish.
p.442 The growth of Glasgow has helped the local economy.

Cambusnethan
OSA
Vol.12, page 573 Although the Glasgow to Lanark road runs through it is likely that traffic will diminish once a new road on the south side of the Clyde is finished. The statute labour money has been spent mostly on roads in the lower part of the parish. The parish was formerly attached to Kelso abbey.

NSA p.608
p.609 The new Edinburgh - Ayr road, built 12 years ago (1822) crosses this parish from Breich Water to Garrion Bridge.

Historical Sketches of the Parish of Cambusnethan, Rev. Peter Brown, 1859
Preface x The north turnpike road from Glasgow to Lanark passes through the centre of Wishaw About the year 1790, favourable terms offered for feus on the line of the public road.
11. Details of the Roman road. Branch northwards to Castlecary fort.
12. Stones from a tumulus near Garrion bridge used when the road was being constructed.
29. Remark made in 1649 on "the wretched, impassable state of the roads in the lower part of the parish, especially in winter."
142. In Covenanting times "a road ran along the vale, near the old church, onward past Cam'nethan house, and towards the Law of Carluke".
116. Covenanting times - ford at Carbarns.
124. Covenanting times - Clyde fordable at an unspecified location near Hamilton - ale house nearby.

Carmichael
OSA (Vol.13, page 368 - also 365)

About half a mile from the western end of Tinto there is a narrow passage about 7 feet wide which although natural seems to have been altered to make passage easier. Produce used to be taken to markets in Glasgow and Edinburgh but the roads to both places were so bad in winter and spring that they were taken on horse back.

Possible holloway Howgate looking south
Possible terrace just beyond holloway Milestone (Lanark 8 miles-see 6" map)

Now ready markets have been found in Lanark and Douglas with the setting up of cotton-works in those places. There is a fine bridge over the Clyde and roads are now suitable for carts throughout the year. Two turnpikes pass through and the statute labour is partly commuted and partly raised in kind.

NSA p.517
p.531 The market town is Lanark where there is a post office. There are about 7 or 8 miles of turnpikes and 20 miles of well-kept parish roads along with bridges - these are partly paid for out of county funds.
p.534 The writer complains of the two toll keepers having a licence to sell drink, noting that this enables the road trustees to be paid a higher rent.
Note: The narrow passage mentioned above is the Howgate which may have been on a Roman road ; see (4) From Castledykes (Corbiehall) to Crawford, Radford, C.A.R., Reid, R.C., and Truckell, A.E., Dumfries & Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, III 31 30 (brief details). The route is shown on the Military Survey maps of c.1750. The RCAHMS (NMRS NS93SW 34) considered it as part of the mediaeval and later road system between Lanark and Upper Clydesdale. From its appearance the main track looks to be a parish road but the photos on the left just west of the main track could be of an older track - these are mentioned in the above paper.

Carluke
OSA

Memorial to General Roy at site of his birthplace near Carluke. The plaque reads "Here stood Miltonhead the birthplace of Major-General William Roy 1726-1790 from whose Military Map of Scotland made in 1747-1755 grew the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain."

Vol. 8, page 135 A road is soon to be built on the south of the Clyde which will run between Hamilton and Lanark. Many farmers in their old age build houses on the main roads or in the villages through which these roads run. The Glasgow to Peebles turnpike passes through. It is well made and although it has toll bars there are none in this district. A branch road, made by the statute labour, runs from Carluke to Lanark. The statute labour is commuted which has helped improve the parish roads. The remains of a wooden bridge are to be seen at Milton which had been built for the farmers required to use the mills here, a requirement that may have applied from the middle ages. The Roman road, Watling Street, passes through and is still visible, especially at Killcaigow-Law (Kilncadzow). Major General William Roy was born in the parish. Where the soil is made up of clay, the roads need constant attention.


NSA
p.563
p.580 Mention is made of the Roman road and its course (as in the Carstairs entry above) towards the western end of the Antonine Wall. A stretch at Dyke (NS 856512) was still in good condition.
From Belston, there was a branch to the north passing Hyndshaw and Shotts towards Camelon.
Another road is supposed to have ran from Lanark across the Mouse (the "Roman" Bridge), the Lee Valley, Chapel, Braidwood to Carluke.
p.582 A bridge has recently been built at Milton Lockhart (near Rosebank on the Clyde Valley road, A72) modelled on Bothwell Bridge.
p.592 Means of Communication   There are more than 35 miles of parish roads, costing £300 each year. The Stirling - Carlisle road and the Glasgow - Carnwath road run through the parish. There are no stage coaches (presumably on roads other than the foregoing turnpikes is meant) but the railway may be extended to Carluke. A gig brings the mail from Airdrie and Lanark.
Great progress had been made in recent years - it was not so long since there were no roads and sledges and horses were used to move goods.
p.596 There are 2 fairs each year, where dairy cows are sold.

Note: Wilson (Roman Penetration in Strathclyde South of the Antonine Wall, Glasgow Archaeological Journal, Vol 19, 1994-95, p. 4 ) discusses the possibility of a branch route at Belston both to the north and down to the Clyde and there is a brief mention in the RCAHMS Lanarkshire Inventory, p 142.

Notices, Historical, Statistical, & Biographical, relating to the parish of Carluke, Dr Daniel Rankin, 1874
21. Details of the Roman road.
46. Mention of a couple of crosses sited at crossroads.
210. Story dating from 1681 when some Ministers returning from Glasgow to Tweeddale by Carluke and Kilncadzow found some brandy that had fallen off the pack horse belonging to the carrier at Biggar.
225. Details of the burgh boundaries. In the past, on market days, collectors of the market dues were stationed on roads leading to the market, viz. on the Carnwath road by the large ash trees; on the Lanark old road, before it was closed, at the bridge; on Maudslie road in Clyde Street; on the Glasgow old road at the junction of Whiteshaw or Castlehill lands with market place; on the Belston road at the march of the Castlehill lands and the common muir.
226. The market place was north of the "Wornway", now High Street. Amusing account of self-important Burgh Officer opening the market.
230. Mention of the old road to Lanark (see Ross 1773) - it ran a few hundred yards east of the turnpike that dates from 1819 and can be easily seen on the early OS maps.
254. Mention in 1786 of the Glasgow and Carnwath turnpike trust.


Carmunnock
OSA

Carmunnock village - note the old signpost

Vol. 18, 167 The Glasgow to England road that goes through Kilbryde, Muirkirk and Dumfries passes through. Another road joins this near Kilbryde for Paisley, and a road will run from this to Carmunnock and Glasgow. The remains of a Roman road have been found on the estate of Castlemilk.

NSA p.597
p.601 A Roman road runs through Castlemilk.
p.605 There are 7 fairs in the village and the nearest market town in Rutherglen although most produce is sent to Glasgow. There is a penny-post to Busby.
A turnpike runs through the parish but there is no public coach. However, coaches run on the Glasgow - Muirkirk road at the east end of the parish.
Parish roads in generally good order.
Note: The Roman road referred to is probably the old road to East Kilbride (see photo) which left Rutherglen as Mill Street and ran up beside Castlemilk estate to Cathkin Braes and then continued past the old reservoir and Rogerton to come out near the Heritage Park at Stewartfield. The road is discussed by Wilson in Roman Penetration in Strathclyde South of the Antonine Wall, Glasgow Archaeological Journal, Vol 19, 1994-95, p. 6. A trial excavation was carried out in 1997 but no conclusive evidence for it being Roman was found.

Carnwath

Carnwath Cross with distances Click for larger image

OSA Vol.10, page 338 - also placename page 326
Wath means a ford and the little stream on the west side of the village is not easily forded on horseback for quite a long way above and below the village. There are iron works at Wilsontown from where the iron is carried to Borrowstouness and Leith. A new line of road will reduce the journey to Leith by 6 miles. It is said that there used to be an avenue from Couthalley Castle to the village, perhaps suggested by the name. The Edinburgh to Lanark and Ayr road passes through and was finished a few years ago; the Glasgow to Peebles road is now nearly finished. Coal can be obtained at Wilsontown and Clempy, both about 6 miles away but peat is also used by some.

NSA p.76
p.76 The name means cairn at the ford, wath being the Saxon word for a ford. The likeliest location was at the west of the village.
p.88 Means of Communication    The roads are much improved. Five years ago (c.1829) a float was instituted between Carwath and Pettinain which were often cut off from each other by floods. The float runs on a chain and can carry carts - this has helped in the movement of coal and lime although link roads to the float need to be improved - see Thomas Reid (Fords, Ferries, Floats and Bridges near Lanark, PSAS, Vol.47, (1912-13)- see also Pettinain)
p.91 There are 5 fairs each year and a weekly market
p.92 The writer laments the number of whisky houses - a particular problem was that the 6 toll houses in the parish had licences to sell drink to supplement their income, yet were often close to an existing inn.

Carstairs
OSA
Vol.18, page 180 There is a Roman camp in the south of the parish with a causeway leading to it which can be traced for several miles.

NSA p.547
p.553 Antiquities   Details are given of the Roman forts and roads in the area. Researchers had identified the camp at Little Clyde (near Crawford) with Ptolemy’s Colonia and the 9th Roman Iter’s Gadanica. From this the next station on the Iter, Coria, has been identified with Castledykes (Corbiehall). From here another road ran to the west, crossing the Clyde near Lanark and running over Stonebyre Hill to cross the Nether (Nethan). Traces of it are still to be found west of that point.
The Iter (known as Watling Street) continued from Castledykes to Cleghorn, where there was another camp and went by Collylaw, Kilncadzow, Belstane past Carluke.
p.560 Market Towns   Lanark and Carnwath are the nearest market towns.
Means of Communication   The Lanark - Carnwath - Edinburgh road, the Glasgow - Peebles road, and one to Edinburgh by Wilsontown (leading to the present day A71) pass through the parish and are in excellent condition. The statute labour roads are likewise in good condition. Coaches run to Lanark and Edinburgh.
Notes: The reference to the Ninth Itinerary suggests that the researchers had been influenced by the forged work "De Situ Britanniae" credited to Richard of Cirencester as it only appears there. It was actually compiled by a Charles Bertram who convinced the leading antiquary William Stukely of its authenticity who then introduced it to the antiquarian world. For a considerable time it had a great influence on studies of Roman Britain, even finding its way on to older OS maps. See Caledonia Romana by Robert Stuart (1852) and Rivet and Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, Book Club Association, 1981, pps. 182-184. For Bertram's text, see Richard of Cirencester (the Appendix containing the Itinerary is on page 472, the Itineraries are detailed from p. 480 onward and the Ninth Itinerary is on p. 489)
Although the identifications given are very probably incorrect, none of this affects the existence of the actual Roman remains referred to. The course of the road is correct.

Covington and Thankerton
OSA
Vol.1, page 193 Coal is brought from 9 miles away. There is a bridge at Thankerton, built in 1778 by subscription and now maintained by the county. The road are maintained by the statute labour which is commuted.

NSA p.872
p.875 There is a bridge at Thankerton, built by public subscription in 1778. Post is brought three miles from Biggar and coal comes from nine miles away.

Crawford

Looking towards ford with castle in trees to the left
Ford at Crawford with castle in trees to the left

OSA Vol. 4, page 507 Two Roman roads are found in the parish. Many strolling beggars pass through. At the time of the border reivers, watches were set on the hills.

The road from Douglas Mill to Moffat was built about 10 years ago and is a great benefit.

Carriers go to Glasgow and Carlisle each week and for three years there has been a daily mail coach. Wool is sent to England and to Leith.

 

NSA p.327
p.327 The name has been thought to mean passage of blood perhaps relating to the Roman road that crossed the Clyde at the village.
p.331 The Roman roads from Moffat and from Dumfries join in the parish and continue up towards Lamington.

This bridge on the old A74 just north of Elvanfoot replaced an earlier bridge nearby and itself has been superseded by the M74. The plaque on the left commemorates 37 workmen killed in the construction of the Caledonian railway and who are buried here.

p.335 Mining District of Leadhills   These mines have been worked for hundreds of years and there is a possibility that they were discovered by the Romans.

p.337 Parochial Economy    Moffat and Biggar, both 15 miles away, serve as the market towns. A mail coach runs each day to Glasgow and Carlisle and a heavy coach between Edinburgh and Dumfries on the excellent turnpike roads. Leadhills has a daily post.

p.338 Means of Communication   The turnpikes are very good. A bridge at Newton was built in 1824, and a chain bridge at Crawford in 1831 - this helps school and church attendance. There is a chapel at Leadhills.
p.339 Fairs  There are two fairs at Leadhills.
Inns  Crawford has two inns and Leadhills one inn.
Fuel  Peat, where it can be found, is used. Coal has to be brought 14 miles or so from Douglas and is expensive.

Crawfordjohn
OSA
Vol.6, page 277 The road from Glasgow to Carlisle runs through the parish as well as one from Edinburgh to Leadhills. There are several parish roads on which the statute labour work is carried out each year.

NSA p.497
Crawfordjohn villagep.504 The rebel army passed through on their way to Glasgow in 1745.
p.511 Parochial Economy     Some business is done at Douglas which is 6 miles over the moor and 8 miles by road but the main market towns are Biggar and Lanark. Letters come daily by Douglas and Leadhills and coal carts can be taken to Leadhills nearly every day. There are two turnpikes in the parish: the Glasgow - Carlisle road and the Biggar - Leadhills road (Edinburgh - Dumfries), each with daily coaches. There is a bridge over the Duneaton on the Glasgow road and two on the way to Crawford and Roberton over the Duneaton and Glengonnar.
There are 33 miles of parish roads which cost about £80 each year to maintain, individuals paying 3/ in statute labour rates. There are no roads in the upper part of the parish.
p.511 Ecclesiastical State    In the middle ages there was a chapel both here and at Roberton which were serviced from Wiston, all three belonging to Kelso Abbey (which had a priory at Lesmahagow.)
p.514 Fairs    Although there is no commercial fair (the right to have a weekly market and an annual fair had been granted in 1688), an annual gathering is held during which horse and foot races are held.
Fuel   Peat and coal are used. Coal is cheap and is brought from Glespin and Ridgeside in Douglas parish.
p.516 The writer suggests a coal road be made along the side of Glespin lane (Water) up to the main parish road at Eastertown, and says that this would allow the old coal road to fall into disuse - this seems to have run through the farms of Crawfordjohn, Mosscastle and Andershaw. He also suggests a stone bridge over the Duneaton on the way to Leadhills and another over the Blackburn with a better road to run to the main Glasgow road.
Notes: It is not clear what the route of the old coal road was. It may be that on Forrest's map of 1816 which shows a road running past Mosscastle to (another) Glespin and then heading up the valley of the Glespin Burn on its west side to the coal works at Glespin (Thomson in 1820 also shows this road). The present day minor road between the village of Glespin and the Crawfordjohn - Sanquhar road is also shown.

Link to Crawfordjohn Heritage Venture

Culter
Culter church
OSA
Vol.6, page 75 There is no bridge over the Clyde which is often impassable. Sheep and black cattle sold to Lanark, Hamilton and Glasgow, as well as at Biggar. Coal comes from Douglas, 11 miles away.

NSA p. 340
p.350 Biggar, three miles away is the market town and has a post office.
Means of Communication    The turnpike between Edinburgh and Dumfries runs through the parish and crosses the Clyde by a fine bridge. There are 10 miles of good parish roads.
p.352 Fuel   Coal is brought 11 miles from Douglas.
Miscellaneous Observations    There is a new bridge over the Culter Water.

Dalserf
OSA
Vol. 2, page 373 There is a ferry over the Clyde near the parish church and one on the Avon at Millheugh. There are no bridges. The great road from Glasgow to Carlisle runs through. There are two chapels.

NSA p.719
A chapel at Chapelburn was close to the old road from Hamilton to Lanark.
p.748 Market Town   The nearest is Hamilton.
There used to be a ferry at Dalserf which went into disuse after Garion Bridge was built about 1820.
There is a post office in Larkhall.
p.749 Means of Communication
The Glasgow - Carlisle, Glasgow - Lanark and the new Edinburgh - Ayr roads run through the parish and have been of great benefit. The Carlisle road was improved about 20 years ago and this gave employment to local people during two hard years. The Lanark road was made about 40 years ago and although picturesque could be improved.
For years, due to debt, the parish roads were bad but these are improving. Farm and service roads, however, are very bad and almost impassable in winter.
At Bent a new road between Lesmahagow and Dalserf parishes for carrying coal and lime has been made by subscription. Another road has been built by the Duke of Hamilton through Overton farm to connect his colliery at Netherburn with the Lanark road.
The Statute Labour Act has deficiencies and needs to be revised
There are coaches to Edinburgh, Ayr, Glasgow, Lanark Stonehouse and Strathaven.
Bridges mentioned are Garion Bridge, built in 1817; Milton Bridge; Millheugh (other images), at the Gander near Stonehouse, and various smaller bridges. Milton Bridge is private and modelled on the old bridges at Bothwell and Hamilton.

Dalziel
OSA (Vol.3, page 463); Watling Street (Vol.3, page 458)
There is a turnpike road from Lanark to Glasgow and one from Edinburgh to Hamilton. Both have bridges over the Calder, and there is another bridge on a minor road. Plots of land have been leased alongside roads and a number of houses have been built there and two settlements grown up.
Watling Street, which runs across the parish is now much defaced by ploughing and stone clearing as well as the turnpike being laid along part of its course.. There is however one spot where it has been preserved by placing a cross stone on top of it and planting trees around it- there are still cinders from Roman iron workings here. At the western edge of the parish, the road led to a camp and a bridge which is thought to be Roman.

NSA p.443
p.451 A Roman road (Watling Street) runs from east to west through the parish. The Glasgow - Carluke - Lanark road follows its course but much has been obliterated in recent years.

The "Roman" Bridge
The "Roman Bridge"

There is a very old bridge over the Calder, called the Roman bridge, which allowed passage into Bothwell parish.
p.457 There are 6 miles of good parish roads maintained at a cost of £45 yearly through the Statute Labour funds. There are 3 bridges.
p.463 Fruit is mostly taken to Glasgow. They leave at midnight in time for the market opening at 5 am.
p.464 Means of Communication   Hamilton has a market and a post office. There is an Edinburgh - Hamilton coach that passes through Dalziel three times a week. The main roads are Glasgow - Carluke - Lanark and Hamilton - Edinburgh.
p.467 Fuel    Coal is obtained locally and carried by donkey cart.

Dolphinton
OSA

Dolphinton church

Vol.14, page 107 The Edinburgh to Leadhills road runs through. Very poor coal from eight miles away.

 

 

 

 

 


NSA
p.49
The Garvald passCorsonconeElrigshillSuggested route by Medwin and Tairth valleyspossible "roundabout route"Suggested routing through the GarvaldPossible alternative route to LintonRoman roadRoman road to Cleghornp.61 In the 1700’s there was a weekly market and two annual fairs, various mills and two inns but now there is nothing. There are 2½ miles of turnpike and 5 miles of parish roads. The line of road between Glasgow and Berwick would be improved by directing it by the Tairth and Medwin rather than Ellsrighill and Corsoncone.

Notes: The map covers both the Dolphinton and the Dunsyre accounts. The main road had the line of the present day A721 through Elsrickle; Corsoncone is on the county boundary. His suggestion, perhaps related to the Dunsyre comments (they were adjacent parishes), was for the road to be routed up the valley of the South Medwin to Dolphinton and then across towards Blyth Bridge and the Tairth Water en route to Peebles.

Map based  on 1935 OS map. With thanks to Ordnance Survey

Douglas
OSA
Vol. 8, page 81 The Glasgow to England and Edinburgh to Ayr roads pass through. Eighteen years ago Lord Douglas paid for 30 miles of the first and 20 miles of the other. They are kept in repair by the statute labour work but this is not sufficient for the purpose. The people were initially very unhappy at having to pay tolls on these roads.

NSA p.477
p.489 Roads    The Edinburgh to Ayr road, via Carnwath and Muirkirk and the Glasgow - Carlisle road run through the parish and are in excellent condition. The Ayr road is not as busy as the new road opened north of here.
The late Lord Douglas funded 20 miles of the old Glasgow road and 30 miles of the Ayr road.
There are a number of statute labour roads, payment towards which is given grudgingly.
p.496 Coal is obtained locally although peat is used in the more distant parts of the parish.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

Dunsyre
OSA
Vol.1, page 337 No mention of roads. Oats, sheep and cattle sent to Glasgow markets.

NSA p.64
p.64 Gypsies used a large cave on Craigengar Hill, in the north-east of the parish, as a meeting place.
p.69 A Roman road runs through a natural pass (the Garvald) on its way to the camp at Cleghorn.
p.72 There are three local market towns, Carnwath, Biggar and (West) Linton.
p.75 The writer suggests that the main road of the parish should be continued through the Garvald to join the Edinburgh - Biggar road near Linton rather than by the present roundabout route.

Notes: See Dolphinton above. His comment about the Roman road is confusing. Assuming the Garvald pass runs for a mile or so north-westwards from Dolphinton towards Garvald House (NT0949) then the Roman road did not run through it but rather, across it on the line of the main road running through Dolphinton. It crossed another road a couple of miles to the south which led to Cleghorn (close to the junction of the A702 and A721). As the main road of the parish in his day was probably the one running from Dunsyre to Roberton Mains and thence to the Biggar - Edinburgh road just south of Dolphinton (see Forrest's map - north sheet) his suggested route would certainly have been more direct although it would still have been 3 miles short of West Linton. In view of this there is a slight possibility that he was referring to a route (shown on Roy between Dunsyre and West Linton as well as by Forrest and Ainslie) that ran through a pass between North Muir and Mendick Hill - this is now the track that runs towards North Slipperfield (NT1251).

East Kilbride
OSA
Vol.3, page 423 The roads are in bad condition. Two turnpikes were built just last year, one leading by Muirkirk and Dumfries into England, the other from Ayrshire to Edinburgh by Bothwell Bridge, or by Hamilton. The statute labour rate is raised on 446 horse gangs at 3/9d each.

East Kilbride Village

East Kilbride Village

NSA p.877
p.879 The most direct road from Glasgow to Strathaven passes through Kilbride, running from Nerston to the bridge at Torrance. The road is wide and in good condition though hilly.
p.889 When a plague had taken hold in Glasgow the inhabitants took their produce only as far as a hill (known thereafter as Market Hill) just north of the village on the old road to Glasgow where people from Glasgow could buy goods.
p.898 Means of Communication   There is a post office in the village which receives mail from Glasgow. The Strathaven - Glasgow coach passes through on the turnpike between these places crossing the Calder at Torrance by a recently improved bridge. Other turnpikes are one to Eaglesham and one to Busby and Carmunnock. Parish roads are in good condition.

 

 

Glasford
OSA
Vol. 7, page 142 No mention of roads.

NSA p.294
p.299 The Strathaven -East Kilbride - Glasgow and Strathaven - Hamilton turnpikes both run through the parish and there are stagecoaches to East Kilbride and Stonehouse and beyond. There is a bridge over the Avon at Glasford Mill but it is narrow and in poor condition - the one over the Calder at Crutherland is better.

Glasgow
OSA Barony of Glasgow Vol.12, page 124;
The roads in the north of the city are hilly The bridge over the Kelvin was completed in 1791. It has a span of 400 feet and is 83 feet high and is "one of the most stupendous works of the kind perhaps in the world."

City of Glasgow Vol.5, page 489 - deepening of Dumbuck ford. Until recently only small vessels could sail up the river to Glasgow, it being so shallow, but this has recently been remedied by deepening the channel. In the time of Queen Mary, many hundreds of people from Glasgow, Dumbarton and Renfrew camped at Dumbuck Ford for 6 weeks where they tried unsuccessfully to deepen the ford.

NSA p.101
p.106 Glasgow had a market and fair as early as the 1100’s.
p.196 Considerable details are given of the efforts to make the Clyde navigable as far as Glasgow. It was a shallow river with several fords along its length. Efforts were made in the mid-1500’s to remove the Dumbuck and other fords, allowing small boats to make their way up to Glasgow.
The main outlet for merchandise was in north Ayrshire but as carriage was expensive merchants looked for alternatives at Dumbarton and Troon, finally settling in the 1660’s on what became Port Glasgow.
A little later a quay was built in Glasgow to allow goods to be transported to and from Port Glasgow. In the mid 1700’s initiatives were undertaken to deepen the river and mention is made of the Pointhouse ford, the Marlin ford, shoals at Kilpatrick and Nushet Island with only two feet of water, and Renfrew ferry.
p.205 The first stage coach in Scotland dates from 1678 and the first service to London from 1788 which took 65 hours at 6 mph; at the present time (1834) it takes 41 hours. The Edinburgh service started in 1799 taking 6 hours to do the 42 miles (now 4 hours).
At the present time about 60 stage coaches ran each day to London, Edinburgh, Paisley, Hamilton, Lanark, Perth and Stirling and 22 other towns.
Alternatives to road travel were steamboats on the Clyde and boats on the Forth and Clyde, Paisley and Monkland canals, as well as the Glasgow - Garnkirk railway.
p.218  There are four bridges in Glasgow: Stockwell Bridge, Jamaica Street Bridge, Hutcheson’s Bridge, and a timber bridge at Portland Street. There is a nearby bridge on the way to Rutherglen.
Stockwell Bridge (reference) replaced the one built by Bishop Rae in 1345, which itself replaced an earlier timber bridge. Over the years it has been steadily improved.
Jamaica Street Bridge was started in 1768 and Hutcheson’s Bridge in 1794 but a flood destroyed the bridge before it was completed. Work on a new bridge at the same location started in 1829 to a design of Robert Stevenson.
The Timber Bridge is also by Stevenson and dates from 1832.
In 1833 work started on a replacement for the Jamaica Street Bridge.
p.221  Details of the extensive postal system are given.

Gorbals
OSA (no entry for NSA)
Vol. 5, page 542 Formerly known as Bridge-end, the village has grown to its present size from a few houses by the side of the road running south from the bridge in the early 1700's.

Govan
OSA
Vol.14, page 282 The parish lies on both sides of the river which when swollen renders the passage by the ferry boat near the mouth of the River Kelvin difficult and dangerous. The ferry itself is in a bad condition and the quay on the north side is silted up because of the deepening of the Clyde. It is hoped to obtain a ferry boat similar to that used at Renfrew and this should improve matters. Four branches of the Kingís Highway run through the parish.

NSA p.668
p.670 There was a ford at Braehead, called the Marline ford, another near the ferry, and one at the east of the village (see image).
p.680 Mention is made of a journey by coach between London and Edinburgh in 1615 that took 17 days to complete.
p.699 There is a regular penny post service to Glasgow and 2 omnibuses that travel frequently to Glasgow.
The Glasgow - Paisley road runs through the parish and is 48 feet wide with footpaths. There is also a road to Kilmarnock and Ayr, one to Renfrew, Port Glasgow and Greenock and another (on the north side of the Clyde) that runs to Dumbarton.
There is a ferry at the village which connects the part of the parish north of the river. Glasgow can be accessed by 4 bridges. One of these was rebuilt and opened in 1836 - Thomas Telford was the architect. When it was being rebuilt there was a temporary wooden bridge and it can still be used by pedestrians. There was another wooden bridge at Crown Street but this was replaced in 1834 by a stone bridge.
Railways to Ayr and Greenock will be completed within the next year.
Details are given of the tolls raised on the turnpikes over several years. The revenues of the Renfrew road, formerly very busy with traffic, have fallen considerably since steamboats were introduced to the Clyde.

Hamilton
OSA (Vol.2, page 211); also bridges (Vol.2, page 179)
There are two bridges over the Clyde: one at Bothwell Bridge and one just below the Avon, built in 1780. There is a bridge built before the 16th century which crosses the Avon on the road to Carlisle, and another bridge on the Avon built last year, mostly for the convenience of a gentleman in the locality. The Carlisle road and the Edinburgh to Ayrshire road run through the parish. Both are turnpike though their upkeep on the soft ground of the parish is difficult and expensive. The advantages of the turnpikes are seen such as allowing far heavier loads to be drawn though they are often too steep. The many cross roads are starting to improve and most streams are bridged. Although the statute labour is commuted some argue that people are now so aware of the advantages of good roads that they would now work more diligently that they used to if the old system was re-introduced. The streets in the town are very good. There are a number of carters in the town and horses are for hire.

NSA p.249
p.250 In describing the extent of the parish, mention is made of the Carlisle road, Bothwell Bridge and Millheugh Bridge.
p.257 Coal is mostly mined at Quarter and taken from there to Hamilton and Avondale parishes by horse and donkey carts.
p.284 Details of the town’s revenues are given: there was an income of £55 5s from the bridge and mention is made of streets and public lamps. £46 was spent on roads.
p.285 Means of communication   Fifteen miles of turnpikes and 30 miles of parish roads. The London - Glasgow road passes through and a road between Ayr and Edinburgh, made in 1755.(see Taylor and Skinner) Another road to Ayr has lately been built (A71).

Old Avon Bridge
Old Avon Bridge (other image)

Two new bridges have been built in the town lately, one over the Cadzow (beside Hamilton Library) and one to the south of the town (on the A74). The old bridge upstream from this was said to have been built by the monks of Lesmahagow. Hamilton Bridge, over the Clyde was completed in 1780 but pontage has to be paid. Bothwell Bridge is very old but has been improved over the years.
The mail coach to London passes daily and mail can be sent to Glasgow, Edinburgh and Strathaven. There are 7 coaches to Glasgow each day and another 7 to places south of Hamilton.
p.292  In the past Hamilton was a major market for lint and wool and was attended by many traders but this has now declined. Five fairs are held each year.
p.293  Post chaises are kept by two of the town’s inns and outgigs and cars can be hired at one of the inns.


Lanark
OSA (Vol.15, page 25); also Romans (Vol.15, page 10)

Old Bridge at Lanark

There are Roman camps at Cleghorn and Castledykes and Watling Street passes from Castledykes across Lanark-moor, goes over the Mouse just east of Cleghorn Bridge, then runs by Colly-law, Killcadzow, Coldstream, Zuilshields and Belstane and thence to the wall.
There is an excellent turnpike to Edinburgh but the Glasgow road is very bad and has to negotiate very steep climbs on either side of the Mouse. A new road is to be built to Glasgow which will cross at the old bridge and run along the south bank of the Clyde on a more level course and through picturesque scenery. It would be a benefit if it were continued by Howgate mouth to the south, making the distance to Carlisle shorter and making Lanark more accessible. It would also be an advantage if the old road by Carluke which is used for the carriage of coal and lime were to be improved. The old bridge was built in the late 1600ís, and the Hyndford Bridge a few years ago. The Mouse has three bridges at Cleghorm, Lockhart-ford on the Carluke road and Mousemill.
Seven fairs are held at Lanark. The Lammas fair used to supply sheep to the Highlands but this trade has fallen off.

NSA p.1
p.4 A fine bridge has been built at Cartland Crags.
p.5 The Clyde can be forded at various places even by children .
p.13 There are two Roman camps nearby with an associated Roman road.

The Old Bridge at Lanark   
Old bridge, Lanark (see also other image) Hyndford Bridge

p.24 Means of Communication
Communications good with 15 miles of turnpike roads. There are regular stage coaches to Edinburgh and Glasgow. The old bridge over the Clyde dates to the mid-1600’s - to the south of town there is an elegant bridge at Hyndford. The Mouse has 5 bridges: Cleghorn, Lockhartford, Cartlands Crags (written as Cartlane in the account) and two at Mouse Mill. The Cartlands Crag bridge is by Telford and was built in 1822 and is 125 feet high. One of the bridges at Mouse Mill dates from the mid-1600’s.
p.29 There are markets twice a week and several fairs during the year. One fair was held a few days after the Falkirk tryst.
Coal is brought from a few miles distance.
Notes: see T. Reid (Fords, Ferries, Floats and Bridges near Lanark, PSAS, Vol.47, (1912-13) for details of the bridges.
The Tillieford was used to bring coal in from Douglas.

Lesmahagow

One of the bridges today

OSA
Vol. 7, page 434 There is a bridge over the Clyde and three over the Nethan. One bridge is on the Glasgow to Carlisle post road which also crosses the Ponicle on the boundary with Douglas parish. There are several other small bridges. Generally the roads are hilly and the line they take could have been better planned. The new road from Lanark to Hamilton on the south bank of the Clyde will be of great benefit.

 

 

Two views of what used to be the main road to the south. It is shown on the Military Survey c.1750 and later as a turnpike. It was superseded by the new Carlisle to Glasgow Road built in the 1820's (the A74). The first view is just south of Brocketsbrae, the second near Righead - although at this point it is not a public road it is still surfaced. As is usually the case with major routes, three or more roads from different periods can often be seen close together.

NSA p.30
p.32  A fine cannel coal used for making gas, is sent to Glasgow and other places.
p.33 A Roman road runs through a part of the parish but has been destroyed by ploughing.
Many cairns have been destroyed, their stone being used for roads and fences.
p.38 Means of Communication
The Glasgow - Carlisle and the Glasgow - Lanark roads run through the parish with regular coaches and carriers to Glasgow as well as a postal service to Glasgow. There are more than 80 miles of parish roads maintained by the Statute Labour conversion money - at least 50 miles of these are in very good order. There are numerous bridges.
p.40 Miscellaneous Observations
Since the last Account roads have improved greatly (they were "mere tracts" at that time) and these have greatly helped agricultural improvements.

Notes: The RCAHMS (Lanarkshire. An Inventory of the Prehistoric and Roman Monuments, HMSO, 1978, p.137-140) discusses the route this road might have followed. From Castledykes it went through Lanark then crossed the Clyde at Kirkfieldbank. From there it ran 1 km SSE and then ran parallel with the river at a distance of approx.1km. The route here was through Nether Affleck and Hallhill. From there it descended to a ford over the Nethan at Corramill (NS816459), ran to Fence and then trended in an almost straight line past Draffan and Gill to the stretch marked on the OS maps south of Stonehouse.

Libberton and Quothquan.
OSA
Vol. 2, page 247 There are 2 bridges over the Methven. The roads which were all made by the statute labour in kind are poor although there has been some improvement since it was commuted. However, further improvements are unlikely unless the heritors agree to pay more themselves. Turnpikes are seen as advantageous although in this parish there is only the Peebles to Glasgow turnpike which is just being built.
Coal from Douglas and Carnwath parishes.

NSA p.41
p.46 Means of Communication
The Glasgow - Peebles turnpike passes through the north of the parish. There are 30 miles of parish roads, mostly bad as there are not enough funds to keep them in good condition.
p.48 Coal is brought from Douglas and Carnwath parishes, about 10 miles away.

New Monkland (East Monkland)
OSA
Vol. 7, page 275 Up to 1772 when the statute labour was commuted the roads were extremely poor. Since then they have greatly improved and nearly all streams have been bridged. An act has been obtained for a turnpike road from Glasgow to Edinburgh by Airdrie and Bathgate and this will run through the parish for many miles. There is a weekly market in Airdrie and four annual fairs. At Kipps there was a ruin of a chapel where the monks of Newbattle Abbey held annual courts in relation to the land they held here. The chapel has now been demolished by a "more than rustic" farmer.

NSA p.242
p.246 There is a post office in Airdrie.
Means of Communication  The Edinburgh - Glasgow and Carlisle - Stirling turnpikes run through the parish and have helped improve the surrounding lands.
p.248 There are two fairs each year and a weekly market.
Parish roads have improved and more roads built; this has helped in the transport of lime and manure.

Old or West Monkland
OSA
Vol. 7, page 379 In the parish there is one coach, 5 chaises, and 5 phaetons. The roads are excellent and maintained by the statute labour commutation money. The turnpike from Glasgow to Edinburgh by Whiteburn runs through and the toll-bar on this is worth a great deal. Another turnpike runs from Glasgow to Airdrie for 7 miles through this parish - it has a toll bar at Langloan. It is soon to be extended to Edinburgh by Bathgate and will be the shortest and most level route between Glasgow and Edinburgh. Pig iron is brought from Muirkirk.

NSA p.635
p.636 In his description of Old Monkland the writer mentions the bridge over the Calder at Carnbroe.
p.649 Malcolm IV granted the Monklands to Newbottle (Newbattle) Abbey. The monks set up a grange at Drumpellier and obtained the right for free passage between the Monklands and the Abbey (at Dalkieth, south of Edinburgh). Note: See here for possible route between Newbattle and Drumpellier.
p.650 A local tradition says that the Old Monkland church was built at the spot where a pilgrim, told to carry a stone as a penance from Glasgow and build a church when he could go no further, could make no further progress.
p.652 In listing the results of a survey of inhabitants in each part of the parish for the Church Commission, the writer mentions roads in describing the parts of the parish. These are:
Parish road from Breadiesolme avenue head to Edinburgh turnpike, near Balliestone Toll
Parish road starting at the end of Longmuir road, passing Breadiesholme avenue and running to Balliestone Toll
Narrow parish road opposite Breadiesholme gateway, crossing the turnpike near Rhins, then on to Seving Bridge, then by Netherhouse, Commonhead, Cuilhill, Longhmuir, Dykehead and ending at Mainhill.
Blair Bridge road
Road from Luggie Mill bridge towards Old Monkland Kirk.
Elsewhere mention is made of a road between Chryston and Cuilhill colliery, one from Gartsherrie to Blair Bridge, and another from Merriston Bridge to the new Edinburgh road.
p.664 Parochial Economy    Airdrie is the nearest market town. There are 44 miles of parish roads and 10 miles of turnpikes. The roads money is £500 pa but due to competition from the canal and railways for the carriage of coal some of the roads are very bad. Details are given of the canal and railways - the writer notes that there was no public conveyance to Glasgow 20 years previously.

Pettinain
OSA (Vol. 12, page 30); see also page 41
In the upper part of its course in the parish the Clyde has several fords though these can become impassable. If these cannot be used there is a bridge to the east at Thankerton, two and a half miles away, which was built about 14 years ago at a cost of 700L. Hyndford Bridge gives easy access to Lanark and beyond. Coal is brought from Ponfeigh, 7 miles away. The roads are much improved in the last 20 years but the soft materials available break up easily so the roads need frequent repairs - some cross roads are very bad. The statute labour money is about 12 L which used carefully will lead to improvements.

NSA p.535
p.544 An account is given of the new float (Lampits Float, see Thomas Reid (Fords, Ferries, Floats and Bridges near Lanark, PSAS, Vol.47, (1912-13), see also Carnwath) which was installed a few years ago (1827). This is capable of carrying animals and carts and has cut the distance to Carnwath from 9 miles to three. Local gentlemen funded it. (image)
p.545 A short stretch of the Carlisle - Stirling turnpike runs through the parish. The parish roads are in good order.
p.546 Coal is brought from Carnwath and Douglas parishes.

Rutherglen
OSA
Vol. 9, page 10 The roads are excellent. The turnpike to London by Kilbride, Muirkirk and Dumfries passes through, with one toll bar in the parish. Rutherglen Bridge, on the way to Glasgow, was built in 1775 and has no pontage. Six fairs held each year. Eighteen carters in the town.

NSA p.373
p.396 There are several fairs.
p.398 A bridge was built by subscription at Shawfield in 1775.
Another bridge was built in the last few years along with a line of road to shorten the distance for carrying coal into Glasgow. The bridge is of timber and has a pontage.

Stonehouse
OSA
Vol. 2, page 231 The roads are in bad repair, being damaged by carts carrying coal and lime and poor materials for their repair at hand. There are no turnpikes. Two bridges over the Avon were swept away in a flood in 1771 but have now been replaced.

NSA p.468
p.472 The writer refers to the Roman road from Ayr to Edinburgh, known locally as the Deil’s Causey. Stretches remain but much has been destroyed with the stones being reused for fences and roads.
p.474 Village    The main street is a mile long and has been macadamised.
Means of Communication   The new Edinburgh - Ayr turnpike runs through Stonehouse and has made travel east and west of the village much easier. There is now a fine bridge over the Gander water on this road. The Glasgow - London road lies a mile east of Stonehouse.
p.475 Fairs    There are three well attended fairs each year.
p.476 Miscellaneous Observations    Prior to the new road opening a few years ago it was rare to see carriages in Stonehouse. Now there are regular coaches to Glasgow, Edinburgh, Ayr and Strathaven, as well as a carrier to Glasgow. There is now a post office in the village.

Symington
OSA
Vol. 8, page 585 No mention of roads. Forty four carts in the parish.

NSA p.867
p.871 The nearest market and post town is Biggar, 3 miles away. There are four miles of turnpikes and a coach runs from Edinburgh to Dumfries. The Lanark - Biggar road crosses the Clyde at a bridge. Coal comes from Douglas and Carmichael parishes, ten miles away.

Walston
OSA
Vol. 7, page 116 No mention of roads

NSA p.846
p.862 Markets at Biggar and Carwath.
Means of Communication    There is a postal service from Roberton. The Dumfries - Edinburgh and the Carnwath - Peebles turnpikes run through the parish and have regular coach services. A carrier goes to Edinburgh. The bridges are small and one is dangerous, though it is to be improved.
p.866 An inn has been established on the Edinburgh - Dumfries road. Peat and coal are used, the coal coming from 10 miles away.

Wandell and Lammingtoune
OSA
Vol. 6, page 549 No mention of roads. One carrier in the parish. Roman camps mentioned.

Clyde's Bridge - click for larger image
Clyde's bridge, hidden by a modern bridge. It was built in the early 1660's at an important fording point over the Clyde. See Reid for details (p.210ff). There is a stone dated 1769 on the bridge which probably indicates when it was improved - see Glasgow Herald feature 21.1.1967, page 8.

NSA p.805p.810 The writer mentions a ford near the old castle of Lamington which was dangerous in flood. A particular incident in 1830 when two young couples were drowned led to a bridge being built in 1836 near to Lamington. Prior to that time there had been no bridges between Clyde’s Bridge to the south (in Wandel) and Wolfclyde to the north, some 9 miles.
p.818 A Roman road enters the south of the parish at Arbory Hill and can be traced for some distance.
p.820 Historical Notices    An account is given of the alarm caused in 1715 by some 400 Highlanders returning home. They split into two parties at Erickstane (above Moffat) with one party heading towards Douglas by Crawford-muir and the other crossing the hills towards Lamington. The Lamington party were captured and taken to Lanark.
p.822 There is a public house in Lamington where carriers often stay. A new inn is being built in the village and the writer recommends it to anglers in Edinburgh who would be able to arrive by the Dumfries coach and enjoy excellent fishing.
p.835 Market Towns    The Edinburgh - Dumfries turnpike comes through Biggar and runs via Abington, Leadhills and Sanquhar: Moffat and Thornhill can also be reached via Crawford. The Glasgow - Carlisle mail coach passes at Abington so postal services are good.
Carriers from this area as well as from Nithsdale and Galloway travel to Edinburgh.
Biggar is the local market town.
p.844 The writer refers to the evil effects of allowing drink to be sold at the toll at Hartside, just south of the village, saying that this allows the Justices to gain more money from the rent.
Coal comes from Douglas and Carmichael parishes.

Wiston and Roberton
OSA
Vol.6, page 306 The Glasgow to Carlisle road passes through the head of the parish. A good road made by the statute labour runs across the parish which allows access to coal. The other roads are bad.

NSA p.93
p.93  Some think that Wilston was formerly Woolstown and was a substantial market for wool.
p.98 Means of Communication    The Stirling - Carlisle turnpike runs through the parish and has been of great benefit to it. There are no bridges of note.
p.100 Coal is brought about six miles from Carmichael and Douglas parishes - carting costs 10d a load.


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Interesting Points

Avondale
A Roman road runs on the south side of the Avon and can be followed for several miles. There are also three chapels in the same area, which were probably serviced by the priory at Lesmahagow. The government should take over the turnpikes and if the military were employed on the roads it would make them "more hardy and less debauched".

Biggar
There was a battle between Wallace and Edward I at Biggar and an engagement at a bridge in Biggar itself over which Wallace made an escape. The bridge is now called the "Cadgerís Brig". The writer complains about the practice of allowing toll keepers to supplement their income by selling drink, noting that in one case a toll-keeper who had his certificate of character refused by the Minister was still able to obtain a licence.

Blantyre
There was a priory, dating from before 1296, that was linked to Jedburgh.

Bothwell
A small bridge over the South Calder is thought to be Roman and to be on the line of Watling Street which was clearly seen coming from the east but is now largely destroyed by the plough. Bothwell Bridge is very old. There is an act dating from 1647 for repairs to the bridge. Near to Bothwellhaugh there is a bridge over the South Calder, thought to be Roman and on the line of Watling Street.

Cadder
The name of Bishopbriggs or bridge dates back to the time when much of the parish was ecclesiastical property.

Cambuslang
Dung is brought in from Glasgow to manure the land. An old bridge called Prior bridge is thought to have been connected with the Priory in Blantyre. There were a number of ruined buildings near the summit of Dechmont Hill, but the stones have been used for building dykes and roads. The owner of the land observed the foundations of a circular building, 24 feet in diameter on the summit. Given the commanding views it might have been a watch-tower. Details of the Cambuslang Wark of 1742 are given, when huge crowds came from all over to attend a religious revival.

Cambusnethan
The new Edinburgh - Ayr road, built 12 years ago (1822) crosses this parish from Breich Water to Garrion Bridge. Carmichael About half a mile from the western end of Tinto there is a narrow passage about 7 feet wide which although natural seems to have been altered to make passage easier.

Carluke
Many farmers in their old age build houses on the main roads or in the villages through which these roads run. The remains of a wooden bridge are to be seen at Milton which had been built for the farmers required to use the mills here, a requirement that may have applied from the middle ages. The Roman road, Watling Street, passes through and is still visible, especially at Killcaigow-Law. From Belston, there was a branch to the north passing Hyndshaw and Shotts towards Camelon. Another road is supposed to have ran from Lanark across the Mouse (the "Roman" Bridge), the Lee Valley, Chapel and Braidwood to Carluke.
Major General William Roy was born in the parish.

Carmunnock
The remains of a Roman road have been found on the estate of Castlemilk.

Carnwath
There are iron works at Wilsontown from where the iron is carried to Borrowstouness and Leith. A new line of road will reduce the journey to Leith by 6 miles. It is said that there used to be an avenue from Couthalley Castle to the villag.Five years ago (c.1829) a float was instituted between Carwath and Pettinain which were often cut off from each other by floods. The float runs on a chain and can carry carts.

Carstairs
There is a Roman camp in the south of the parish with a causeway leading to it which can be traced for several miles.

Crawford
Two Roman roads are found in the parish. Many strolling beggars pass through. The Roman roads from Moffat and from Dumfries join in the parish and continue up towards Lamington. The mines at Leadhills have been worked for hundreds of years and may have been discovered by the Romans.

Crawfordjohn
The rebel army passed through on their way to Glasgow in 1745.

Dalserf
There is a ferry over the Clyde near the parish church and one on the Avon at Millheugh. There are no bridges.

Dalziel
Plots of land have been leased alongside roads and a number of houses have been built there and two settlements grown up. Watling Street, which runs across the parish is now much defaced by ploughing and stone clearing as well as the turnpike being laid along part of its course. There is however one spot where it has been preserved by placing a cross stone on top of it.

Douglas
The late Lord Douglas funded 20 miles of the old Glasgow road and 30 miles of the Ayr road. There are a number of statute labour roads, payment towards which is given grudgingly.

Dunsyre
Gypsies used a large cave on Craigengar Hill, in the north-east of the parish, as a meeting place. A Roman road runs through a natural pass (the Garvald) on its way to the camp at Cleghorn.

East Kilbride
When a plague had taken hold in Glasgow the inhabitants took their produce only as far as a hill (known thereafter as Market Hill) just north of the village on the old road to Glasgow where people from Glasgow could buy goods.

Glasgow
The bridge over the Kelvin was completed in 1791. It is 400 feet and 83 feet high and is "one of the most stupendous works of the kind perhaps in the world."
In the 1500's, many hundreds of people from Glasgow, Dumbarton and Renfrew camped at Dumbuck Ford for 6 weeks where they tried unsuccessfully to deepen the ford to allow vessels to sail up to Glasgow.
The first stage coach in Scotland dates from 1678. The first service to London from 1788 took 65 hours at 6 mph; at the present time (1834) it takes 41 hours. The Edinburgh service started in 1799 taking 6 hours to do the 42 miles (now 4 hours). Stockwell Bridge replaced the one built by Bishop Rae in 1345, which itself replaced an earlier timber bridge.

Govan
The ferry is difficult and dangerous. When a bridge in Glasgow was being built a temporary wooden bridge was erected and it can still be used by pedestrians. The revenues of the Renfrew road, formerly very busy with traffic, have fallen considerably since steamboats were introduced to the Clyde.

Hamilton
There is an old bridge over the Avon said to have been built by the monks of Lesmahagow. Bothwell Bridge is very old but has been improved over the years.

Lanark
There are Roman camps at Cleghorn and Castledykes and Watling Street passes from Castledykes across Lanark-moor, goes over the Mouse just east of Cleghorn Bridge, then runs by Colly-law, Killcadzow, Coldstream, Zuilshields and Belstane and thence to the wall. It would be useful if the new road to be built on the south of the Clyde continued over the Howgate. The old bridge over the Clyde dates to the mid-1600ís. The Cartlands Crag bridge is by Telford and was built in 1822 and is 125 feet high. One of the bridges at Mouse Mill dates from the mid-1600ís. The Tillieford was used to bring coal in from Douglas.

Lesmahagow
A Roman road runs through a part of the parish but has been destroyed by ploughing.

New Monkland (East Monkland)
At Kipps there was a ruin of a chapel where the monks of Newbattle Abbey held annual courts in relation to the land they held here. The chapel has now been demolished by a "more than rustic" farmer.

Old or West Monkland
Malcolm IV granted the Monklands to Newbottle (Newbattle) Abbey. The monks set up a grange at Drumpellier and obtained the right for free passage between the Monklands and the Abbey (at Dalkieth, south of Edinburgh).
In the early 1800ís there was no public conveyance to Glasgow.

Pettinain
The Lampits Float over the Clyde, introduced in 1827, is capable of carrying animals and carts and has cut the distance to Carnwath from 9 miles to three.

Rutherglen
A bridge was built recently along with a line of road to shorten the distance for carrying coal into Glasgow. The bridge is of timber and has a pontage.

Stonehouse
The writer refers to the Roman road from Ayr to Edinburgh, known locally as the Deilís Causey. Stretches remain but much has been destroyed with the stones being reused for fences and roads. The main street is a mile long and has been macadamised.

Wandell and Lammingtoune
A bridge was built in Lamington after two young couples were drowned in 1830 at a dangerous ford. A Roman road enters the south of the parish at Arbory Hill and can be traced for some distance. A group of Highlanders returning home in 1715 were captured near Lamington and taken to Lanark. A new inn is being built in the village and the writer recommends it to anglers in Edinburgh who would be able to arrive by the Dumfries coach and enjoy excellent fishing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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