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Aberdalgie and DupplinAberfoyleAbernethyAbernyteAlythArngaskAuchterarderAuchtergavenBalquhidderBendochy, part ofBendochyB;ackfordBlair AthollBlairgowrieCallanderCargillCaputhCoupar AngusComrieCollaceClunyCrieffCulrossDronDullDunkeld and DowallyDunblaneDunbarnyDunningForgandennyErrolFortingallForteviotForteviot, part ofFossoway, partFossoway, partGlendevonGaskFowlis WesterInchtureKenmoreKenmore, part ofKenmoreKenmore, part ofKillinKillin, part ofKillin, part ofKilmadockKincardine in MonteithKilspindyKinnoulKinnairdKinfaunsKinclavenLecroptKirkmichaelLittle DunkeldLethendy and KinlochLogieraitLongforganMaddertyMeigleMethvenMoneydieMonivaird and StrowanMonzieMoulinMuckartMuthillPerthPort of MentiethRattraySconeSt MadoesSt Martins and CambusmichaelWeem, part ofWeem, part of WeemTulliallanTrinity GaskTibbermuirLethendy and KinlocjKincardine in Monteith

Aberdalgie & Dupplin Blair-Athol Dron Fowlis Wester Kinnaird Moneydie St Madoes
Aberfoyle Blairgowrie Dull Gask Kinnoull Monivaird and Strowan St Martins and Cambusmichael
Abernethy Callander Dunbarney Glendovan Kirkmichael Monzie Scone
Abernyte Caputh Dunblane Inchture Lecropt Moulin Tibbermore
Alyth Cargill Dunkeld and Dowally Kenmore Lethendy and Kinloch Muckart Trinity Gask
Arngask Clunie Dunning Killin Little Dunkeld Muthill Tulliallan
Auchterarder Collace Errol Kilmadock Logierait Perth Weem
Auchtergaven Comrie Forgandenny Kilspindie Longforgan Port of Menteith
Balquihdder Coupar-Angus Forteviot Kincardine in Monteeith Madderty Rattray
Bendochy Crieff Fortingall Kinclaven Meigle Redgorton
Blackford Culross Fossoway and Tulliebole Kinfauns Methven Rhynd

The text below is mostly summaries with some extracts from the original text. The links are to Google Books, usually to the first item of interest rather than the first page of a parish. The NSA for Perthshire is volume 10 (GoogleBooks); alternatively it can be accessed on the EDINA site. Some notes from MacFarlane's Geographical Collections (mostly Volume I) have been added - these are useful as they date from the 1720's. See here for further information and links.

Additional information about parishes can be found on the Vision of Britain site and on Scotland's Places.

An illustration of Coupar-Angus from Forfarshire Illustrated, Gershom Cumming, 1843 is incorporated with a link back to the original text on Googlebooks. Also included are some images from Google Street View.

Some old photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company's Views of Landscape and Architecture in Scotland are included - see thumbnails on Library of Congress site here.

Various maps are based on the half-inch OS map, sheets 19 and 23, 1911 and 1913 and quarter-inch OS map 1923. With thanks to Ordnance Survey. The overview map immediately below and a number of the parish maps are based on the map of Scotland by J.Arrowsmith, 1844, courtesy of David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. The image is copyright Cartography Associates but has been made available under a Creative Commons license for non-commercial use.

Perthshire is an interesting county for roads with a well researched line of Roman road and references to other possible Roman roads. It was an important centre for the Picts and it can be assumed that there was a well-established network of routes between their settlements. In the middle ages, various charters refer to roads and there are a number of early bridges that certainly existed in the middle ages, and one or two that are surmised to have been built by the Romans.

By the late middle ages there were important routes leading to Perth from other towns like Edinburgh, Stirling and Aberdeen, and in the early 1700's Perthshire was chosen by General Wade as the starting point for his network of military roads leading into the Highlands. Further roads were built in Perthshire by his successor, Cauldfeild.

Other than these highlights, Perthshire shared in the general pattern of statute labour roads and turnpikes.

Map showing Roman and later military roads in Perthshire
Map showing the main line of Roman road north (in purple) - this may have continued to the north-east. Only some of the Roman camps. watch-towers etc in this area are shown; these include the "glen-blocking" forts.
The Wade roads are shown in yellow, and the later Military Roads as dotted lines - these were often made in association with the county and were not exclusively military.
Based on Arrowsmith's map of Scotland, 1844, courtesy of David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. The image is copyright Cartography Associates but has been made available under a Creative Commons license for non-commercial use.

There is an extensive literature on Roman roads in the county, written both by archaeologists and by the earlier antiquarians, the Statistical Accounts themselves having quite a few references. These of course have to be checked against the findings of more recent research as some are far too speculative, or at least have not been confirmed. It is interesting to see that even at the time of the NSA, the writer of the Moneydie account is sceptical enough to say of a putative Roman camp that "like many other Roman camps, if its history were known, it would very likely turn out to have been a sheep-pen."

The Roman road dates from the Agricolan invasion and ran up from Camelon near Falkirk to the fort at Ardoch, having crossed the Forth somewhere west of Stirling. From Ardoch it ran to the fort at Strageath that guarded a crossing of the Earn and then along the Gask Ridge to the west of Perth where it turned north to run up to cross the River Almond 3 miles north of Perth. A line of watch towers is associated with the road north of Ardoch and along the Gask Ridge.

A number of forts were placed close to the mouths of various glens to restrict hostile movement. One at Fendoch, with a watch tower, guarded the Small Glen, about 5 miles north of Crieff; others were at Dalginross, near Comrie; Bochastle near Callander; Malling at the Lake of Menteith; and Drumquhasle near Drymen. There is a tradition of a fort near Dumbarton which would complete the cordon.

South of the Gask Ridge and the River Earn there were camps at Dunning, Abernethy and Carpow, near to the later Severan fort. There is a hint that a road ran along this line in the causeway said to have been used by the monks of Lindores abbey (close to Carpow) in an annual procession to the church at Ecclesiamagirdle. There are also very old routes across the Ochils here and it is not inconceivable that they were used by the Romans.

From the crossing of the Almond north of Perth where there was a fort called Bertha (there was much controversy as to whether this was the original site of Perth) a bridge crossed the Tay and the accounts refer to its remains. From there it continued north on the east side of the Tay to a fort at Cargill where the Isla would have been crossed by a bridge to reach the major legionary fortress at Inchtuthill. There are several significant sites in the area and some have claimed the battle of Mons Graupius was fought near here. South of the Isla a road ran north-east past Coupar-Angus to enter into Kincardineshire. Three miles south-west of the town there is a stretch of road shown variously on old maps as Roman and as the Abbey Road - this is a reference to a charter of the abbey of Coupar-Angus.

The campaign in the Antonine period (AD 142 - c. AD 165) readvanced only to near Perth but that by Severus went much further north, reusing some of the earlier camps. Carpow dates from this time.

While it would be difficult to identify with certainty any particular route used by the Picts their strong connections with this area make it very likely that they did have such routes between their settlements (see for example the distribution maps in the Atlas of Scottish History, ed. McNeill & MacQueen, The Scottish Mediaevalists and University of Edinburgh, 2000). The historian Hector Boece ( History, book IV, section 60) refers to a wooden bridge being made by them at Dunkeld at the time of the Agricolan invasion.

In the middle ages, Perth was such an important town that a network of roads can be assumed but the clues provided by the Statistical Accounts would need to be supplemented from other sources. The Accounts do mention mediaeval bridges at Dunkeld, Perth, the Bridge of Earn, Callendar and Doune (said to have been built by the tailor to Margaret, Queen of James IV to spite the ferryman who had refused to row him over), the Abbey Road near Coupar-Angus, the causeway from Lindores to Ecclesiamagirdle, and a road between Tibbermore (4 miles west of Perth) and Perth.

A number of military roads were made in the county to ensure easy access to the Highlands in case of further Jacobite insurrections. The first roads were by Wade and ran from Dunkeld (which was accessible by existing roads) up to Blair Athol and beyond, more or less on the line of the later A9. This road was joined at Dalnacardoch by one that ran north from Crieff (later improved southwards to Stirling) through Amulree and Aberfeldy, crossing the Tay there by a fine bridge. An inscription on this bridge makes it clear that some people saw these roads as an extension and completion of the network made by the Romans. Another road was made from Aberfoyle over to Inversnaid on the east side of Loch Lomond to discourage cattle theft.

Another series were made by Wade's successor, Cauldfeild, often in association with the county, i.e. they were not always exclusively made by the military, and could be on an existing line of road. One ran from Stirling by Callander to Crianlarich and Tyndrum and another from Coupar-Angus and Blairgowrie up to Braemar and Corgarff. There was also a link road between Coupar-Angus, Dunkeld and Amulree.

Although these roads were very useful in opening up the country, they were not very suitable for wheeled traffic and there was still a need for improved roads in the county. The accounts have many references to statute labour though this was often carried out indifferently. As elsewhere turnpike acts were applied for and many new roads made.

There was extensive use of the Tay for shipping, not only to Perth but numerous places along both sides of the river. Canals were mooted in several places but were generally dropped in favour of railways.

There were a large number of ferries over the Tay, Earn, Isla, Teith, the Forth and the Tummell.

Peat was used but in many places it was becoming scarce as mosses were drained or were used up. It was also a time-consuming business cutting it out and bringing it home. Where feasible, coal was brought in from pits in Bannockburn and Fife, as well as landed on the Tay, depending on location.

Details are given of the markets and fairs, some of which had been long established. The major cattle trysts at Crieff had moved south to Falkirk in the mid-1700's. One rather alarming reference for Monzie says that some people from the Highlands on their way to Crieff used "to enter the houses of the country people, take unceremonious possession of their firesides and beds, carry off the potatoes from their fields or gardens, and sometimes even the blankets, which had afforded them a temporary covering for the night."

There are one or two interesting or unusual references such as for Callander where there is a lake near the summit of Ben Ledi called Lochan-Nan-Corp, the small Lake of dead Bodies where a funeral party crossing over on ice fell through the ice and were drowned - they were passing from Glenfinglass to the chapel of St. Bridget where people were buried.

The MacFarlane references are useful as they date from the 1720's as too are John Adair's maps dating from the 1680's and 1720 as they show roads.

Other sources
Maps of Perthshire - John Adair's maps of 1683, 1685 and 1720 are of particular interest as they show roads.
George Chalmers, Caledonia Vol.1 page 144ff. Although it has to be reassessed in the light of more recent work this gives a comprehensive account of the Roman advances north from Stirling.
Perth, General view of the agriculture in the southern districts of the county of, James Robertson, 1794, also Perth, James Robertson, 1799
Canmore entries on Roman Roads in Perthshire
Canmore entries on roads, includes Roman roads, military roads, and bridges.
P&KC Archive's photostream - early photos of Perth and Kinross
The Roman Gask Project

Chronicles of Strathearn, W.B. MacDougall, Crieff, 1896
Minute Book, Perthshire Highway Commisioners, 1765-1786
Various items
- link to website section
Roads in 1859 - link to website section
Heritage Paths - details of various historic routes in the county

Google Maps & Street View - view larger map and drag yellow figure onto a highlighted road to see roadside view

View Larger Map

New Statistical Account The NSA links below are to this point where the original accounts can be accessed. Alternatively see the EDINA site. Use the back button on the browser to return to parish account.

Aberdalgie and Dupplin
OSA 18/149
No particular mention of roads.

Map of Aberdalgie
Aberdalgie. Based on 1/2 inch OS map, 1913

NSA, V.10, Page 875
876 Mention of bridge of Forteviot.
879 A great deal of manure is brought in from Perth.

Parochial Economy.
Means of Communication.
—The Perth - Stirling road, completed in 1811, passes through for 3 miles on a much better line than the old road. Farm-houses have been built along its line as the ease with which lime and manure can be brought in and produce taken to market has made farms much more productive.


OSA 10/113
Page 117 He refers to a feature on the farm of Nether Donnans that some think to be a Roman encampment but is more likely to be a natural feature.
Page 126 In the early 1700's a company of soldiers was stationed at Inversnaid to control the freebooters who infested the district. A road was built from here to their barracks. The occasional vacant stipend has been used to build small bridges and the roads are improving under the superintendance of the Duke of Montrose's factor - the statute labour has been converted.

Page 127 Fuel. Peat is the main fuel though hard to obtain. Wood also is used but coal has to come from Bannockburn, 22 miles away.

NSA, 1150
Page 1151 When Loch Ard freezes in a severe winter, many crossings are made, some with heavy loads of fuel.
Page 1152 Lord Cathcart’s scheme to have a canal up from the Forth to the Clyde by Lochlomond and the Leven has been abandoned.
Page 1157 Parochial Economy. Market-Town, Etc.—The nearest is Stirling, 20 miles away. Glasgow is 28 miles distant with convenient regular weekly carriers. There is now a post office.
Page 1159 Fairs.—Three, for cattle, lambs, and hiring servants.
Inns, Etc—There is a respectable inn which caters for travellers and is sufficient for those living here.
Fuel.—Peat and wood are easily available but coal is expensive having to come 24 miles from Greenyards, near Bannockburn.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Description of Six parishes in Perthshire 1724
Volume 1, Page 342 Bridge beside the church - this was destroyed by order of the government in 1715 but has not yet been repaired.

OSA 11/435
Page 443 There is an underused ferry at Cary and one at Ferryfield which is busy taking people to the Carse of Gowrie.

Page 447 Roads and Bridges.- "There are 2 public roads; that which leads to Fife by Newburgh is in tolerable repair; the other, which is through the glen of Abernethy (and by which great quantities of coal and lime are brought from Fife to Strathearn) is very bad; that which strikes off the glen to Auchtermuchty, is in winter almost impassable. The statute labour, and composition-money allowed, are totally inadequate to keep these roads in repair. There are 2 bridges over the Farg; the one at Gowly, which is old and ruinous (note: this was on the older line of road between Abernethy and Bridge of Earn), the other below Potty Mill, which is too narrow for carriages, and lies at some distance from the public road."
Another is needed near Aberargie, as the river is dangerous in flood.

Round tower, AbernethyNSA, 838
He gives many historical details of the parish which was an important centre for the Picts and for the Culdees.
Page 851 Sibbald refers to a Roman road leading from near Carpow to Ardoch and another to Perth.

Page 859 Parochial Economy. Abernethy has two small declining markets and a penny post office with the main offices in Newburgh and Bridge of Earn. The Edinburgh - Perth turnpike passes through Glenfarg; other roads are statute labour including one from Perth to Cupar on which a new bridge has now been erected over the Farg.

Page 861 Alehouses.—Five.

Ferries.—There are boats over the Earn at Cary, little used, and at Ferryfield near the confluence of Earn and Tay. Passage boats also cross over from Ferryfield to the Carse of Gowrie where there is a good pier and landing place near Pitfour though there would be a great benefit if low water piers were built on both sides of the Tay.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Abernethy 1722
Volume 1, P 115 In Abernethy parish there are boats for foot passengers and horses over both the Arne (Earn) and Tay, near their confluence at a place called the Heughhead.
It is five miles to Perth by the king’s highway, which crosses over the Bridge of Erne (NMRS record-see also Images Online. The bridge dates from c.1329 - very little remains today). King’s highways also go to Stirling, Perth by the Kingoren “rod”, Falkland, Kirkcaldy, Couper by Newburgh. There is a public way from Kingoren to the Carse of Gowrie and Angus, and a foot passage on the Caree. At Gaule there is a bridge and two fords.

Additions to the Parishes of Abernethy and Colessie 1722
Page 297 These appear to be questions arising from the previous accounts. Under Abernethy the question is asked How lyes Abernethy from Perth, and Faulkland? Whereabouts is the bridge with 3 arches over water of Farge? The answer given is:

Map of Abernethy parish showing ferries - click for larger image“Remember as I told you before that the ancient toun of Abernithie, it lys 5 miles Southest from Perth and 5 miles from Falkland; the Brige of Gavile with 3 arches is on the water of Farge a mile and a half northwest from Abernathie upon the highway betwixt Falkland and Perth on the west border of Abernathie parioch in that quarter, Likeways the ferre passage that goes over the River of Tay, its proper landing place is on the ground of Carne they call the Hamlot Carne, where they land on the north side of the river of Tay. Also that same ferrie crosses over the river of Arne and its landing is on the ground of Ester Rind Likewise the other ferrie, called Care or Care bot its landing is on the ground of wester rind, is upon the river of Arne. There is no passage of bots but upon the Abernethie side. There is likewise one ferrie passage on the est side of the Rind paroch but the botes belongs to the eastside of the river Tay they call the passage Inchu or Inchures but their landing on the Rind paroch is on the ground of Elchu: likewise the house of Elchue stands upon Tay side about 3 miles south est from Pearth.
N.B. the passage of the hughhed a mile North from Abernathie is for both foot and horse and it goes over both Tay and Arne. Its landing on the north side of Tay is on the ground of Carne. Likewise its landing on the north side of Arne is on the ground of Ester Rind. Als there is ane other passage about half a mile North west from Abernathie, only for foot called Care, which goes onely over the river of Arne and lands on West Rind.”
Note: Map based on 1913 half-inch OS map for Dundee, Perth & Stirling. With thanks to Ordnance Survey.

OSA 9/139
Page 144 Lime is landed at Polgavie on the Tay about 4 miles away.
Page 149 Turf and coal are burnt, there being no peat. The carriage of the coal is difficult because the roads are so bad this being a small parish and there being no resident heritor but toll roads are being made. It is hoped that the cross roads will also be seen to otherwise the hill country will not benefit. If a canal was made through this district lime and coal would be easily transported but the idea seems to have been dropped for the meantime.

NSA, 219
Map of AbernytePage 224 Parochial Economy.
There are a few small bridges here in tolerable repair. The roads, within these few years, have been Macadamised, and kept in good order without a toll.”
Page 225 One alehouse. Coal is brought in from Polgavie, and brushwood is available locally.
Page 227 Miscellaneous Observations. Roads have been made through the Duke of Athol’s plantations.


Page 398 Lime is brought in from Dundee.
Page 399 There are 2 bridges in the village. Weekly market and several fairs for the sale of black cattle and sheep.
Dundee is now easily reached by the now nearly finished turnpike road between Dundee and Meigle, and there are hopes to continue it to Alyth and build a bridge over the Isla which will be very advantageous to the district.
Page 400 The main disadvantage is the distance from peat and the time and expence it takes to obtain them. As a result coal is starting to be used though it has to come from Dundee.






Map of AlythNSA, 1110
Page 1125 Parochial Economy. There is a small market here but Blairgowrie, 5 miles distant, has a regular market and Dundee, 17 miles away is the major market for the whole area.
Although there are no turnpikes the county roads are greatly improved. There are 3 bridges in the village and one over the Isla at Crathie made 24 years ago at a cost of L.3500. This and the Dundee to Newtyle Railway give easy access to Dundee where their produce can be sold and various commodities obtained which would be difficult otherwise. There is a sub post-office here, served from Meigle.
Fairs.— Six are held here though only four, for cattle and sheep, are held.
Public Houses.—Eight, with 4 licensed shops.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Alyth 1727

Vol.1 Page 109 Alyth is connected by king’s highways to Forfar by the bridge of Ruthven; Dundee by Meigle, Newtyld and Auchterhouse; Perth by Coupar of Angus; and Dunkeld by Blairgowrie and Clunie.
P 110 There is a passage boat over the Yla on the way from Alyth to Meigle, and one over the same river on the way to Couper in Angus (p111).
P 113 There are five stone bridges on the Alyth Burn: one at Tilliemurdoch, two in Alyth, one about a mile below Alyth and one at the Castle of Innerqueich.

Page 417 There is only 1 two-wheeled chaise. Mention of the new road to Kinross. The road between Perth and Queensferry passes through here. “Many of the roads are in a state of nature. The inhabitants highly approve of turnpikes: Some pay the statute labour half in kind and half in money.

Map of Arngask
Arngask. Based on 1/2 inch OS map, 1913

NSA, 882
Page 888 Mention of the turnpike road which passes through Glenfarg.
page 891 Parochial Economy. Means of Communication.—The Great North Road from Edinburgh to Aberdeen runs through, and 4 coaches including the mail coach travel on this. There are 10 miles of good statute labour roads and several bridges - four of these cross the Farg.
Villages.—A post-office was set up in the village of Damhead in 1838 - it receives mail from Kinross to the south and Bridge of Earn to the north.
Market-Towns.—The main ones are Kinross and Perth although farmers will also go to Newburgh and Milnathort.
Page 895 Fairs.—Four cattle fairs.
Inns.—There are four of which the two at Damhead would be sufficient for travellers on the great north road and those living in the parish.
Fuel.—Coal carted in from Kelty, Lumphannan and Lochgelly all some 12 miles or so away is now used in place of turf, furze and peat.
Miscellaneous Observations. A major improvement has been the new turnpike road which was made through Glenfarg as far as Damhead between 1808 and 1820, and extended from there to Milnathort by 1832. A Western Fife Railway is proposed and this would give us excellent means of communication.

1841. Revised 1842

Page 38 Advantages and Disadvantages. "It is perhaps also an advantage to the parish, that the direct road runs through it, which leads from Perth, Aberdeen, and the East country, to Stirling and Glasgow."

Page 43 Auchterarder has four fairs each year with a major tryst for black cattle held since 1781. Twenty years ago, yarn and narrow linen-cloth was taken to Glasgow but this has now fallen away.
Some traces of encampments SE of the village may have been outposts of the Roman camp at Ardoch.

Page 44 Miscellaneous Observations. Having to bring coal from Blairingone and Dollar adds to its cost but the proposed turnpike to Blairingone should improve this situation as well as make travel easier. The roads hereabouts are poor; they are statute labour which has recently been commuted at 8s. a ploughgate though the funds will be insufficient to make any great improvement.

Map of old road to Perth
Road to Perth in late 1700's. From Taylor and Skinner, Plate 50 and J Stobie 1783 (NLS maps). The A9 (effectively the old turnpike road) has been upgraded along its length and no longer passes through Dunblane, Greenloaning, Blackford, Auchterarder and Aberuthven. Many sections of the old A9 can be seen on the 1:50,000 OS map. Above map based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923.

, 285
AuchterarderPage 287 “Auchterarder was one of the Scottish towns ironically compared by George Buchanan with the fine English cities. Some English noblemen, boasting to King James of the properties of the English towns, the sarcastic Scot replied, that he knew a town in Scotland which had fifty draw-bridges, and which is afterwards described as a " country village between Stirling and Perth, called Auchterardoch, where there is a large strand which runs through the middle of the town, and almost at every door there is a long stock or stone laid over the strand, whereupon they pass to their opposite neighbours, and when a flood comes they lift their wooden bridges in case they should be taken away, and these they call draw-bridges." —So goes the story.”
Page 293 Parochial Economy. A weekly market is held in the village and is the main one in this area.
Fairs.—Of the 6 annual fairs one is held just before the trysts at Falkirk to allow people here to buy stock. The fair in December is used for the payment of accounts.
Means of Communication.—“There is a daily post by the way of Crieff. The Perth and Glasgow coaches pass daily through the town. There are carriers who go every week to Glasgow, Edinburgh, Perth, and Stirling. The turnpike road extends six miles in the parish.
Page 296 Inns.—There are 21 in Auchterarder and 2 in Smithyhaugh.
Fuel.—Coal. The Glendevon turnpike has greatly lowered its price.

Page 555 A turnpike road from Perth to Dunkeld is now completed and has a different line from the old road.
Peat and turf is available locally although most farmers are now using coal from Perth and near Kinross and using the time saved to improve their land.

NSA, 423
Page 441 Parochial Economy.
Produce is taken to the markets in Perth and Dunkeld, and all necessary items obtained there.

Stanley Mills. For details see here.

Means of Communication.—Five miles of the great north road from Edinburgh to Inverness pass through. Stage coaches between Perth and Dunkeld run on this as does the mail-coach to Inverness. There is a penny post at Bankfoot, served from Perth.
There are 20 miles of statute labour roads and numerous small bridges where required.
Page 449 Fairs.— “An annual fair or market was once held on the banks of the Ordie, at a place called the Hole of Tulybelton, a beautiful dell, at which many Highlanders attended to sell wool, cheese, and butter, and other produce of their land and industry. This market no longer exists; but there is still a fair held at Auchtergaven, on the second Friday of November, for cattle, sheep, and general business.
Public-Houses.—Of the 26, only a number on the turnpike and public roads for travellers and carriers to and from the highlands are needed.
Fuel.—English coal is available from Perth and in the summer many farmers bring in coal from collieries in Fife and Clackmannan. Peat from various quarters is also used, as is some wood.
Revised 1838

Page 92 Mention of the villages of Lochlubnaig and Lochearn being on the military road from Stirling to Fort William.
Page 94 Imports and Exports. Sheep are sent to Glasgow, Edinburgh and England.
Page 96 Miscellaneous Observations. Ten miles of the military road from Stirling to Fort William pass through the parish. Although 8 miles of this have been repaired, 2 miles still have to be done and the road generally is very hilly and so unsuitable for carriages. An improved line is planned for next summer near Lochearnhead and this along with the road through Glencoe and Ballachulish ferry will make for an easy journey between Edinburgh and Fort William or Appin.

The old church in Balquiddher where Rob Roy is said to be buried Our parish roads, of which there are several, have been made by statute labour which is now commuted and the fund should result in improvements.Two bridges were built over the Balvaig about 10 years ago and this year 5 more bridges were built by subscription and a small grant from the county.
Good roads and easy access to markets are an advantage of this parish but there is a want of manufactures and fuel is scarce - peat is used although it is not easily accessed and is supplemented with some coal from Bannockburn, 30 miles away.

NSA, 344
Page 347 Parochial Economy. Market-Town.—The nearest is Callendar, 12 miles away.
Villages.—“There are two small villages in the parish, one in Strathyre, and the other at Lochearnhead, both on the turnpike road that leads from Stirling to Fortwilliam.
Means of Communication.—Eleven miles of turnpike road. Post-office at Lochearnhead. Two bridges on the Balvag.

Page 340 Mention of bridge at Couty.
Page 358 Fuel.—Peat is brought from a moss in Kinloch parish, 7 hours being taken up by the journey. Those who have carts bring coal from Perth or Dundee.
Bridges.— "There was a bridge built over the Isla, on the road from Cupar Angus to Fort George, by Government, in 1766. The arches are five. The middle arch is 30 feet above the summer water and the road over is 15 feet wide. The road is sometimes impassable, on the south side, at high floods. The bridge is built nearly over the only two natural great stones in the middle of the river, called the riding stone and the wading stone; and as works of nature outlive those of art, they may shew the place where it stood after it is gone. There is another bridge over the Ardle at Cally, on the same road, and a bridge at Stron, over the Shee, on another road, both of one arch. There is a boat over the Eroch at Cupar-grange for foot people."
Page 363 Canal.—He notes that a canal could be made from Perth to Coupar-Angus and on to Forfar.
Page 368 He argues at length for the battle of Mons Graupius being in this general area.

NSA, 1176
Page 1180 Hydrography.—When high, the Isla can rise thirteen or fourteen feet above normal and in 1774 rose “to within six inches of the top of the lowest arch at the bridge of Couttie.”
“Below the church it is seventy-five yards broad, and at the ford there (by which there is a right of road to Coupar- Angus,) is, in summer, three feet in depth.”
Page 1195 Parochial Economy. For those living west of the Ericht, Coupar Angus is the post and market town where grain is sold - it is 2 miles from the church. The rest of the parish has Blairgowrie as the post-town where there are regular markets for cattle and for oats from the Highland district although some go to Alyth as it is nearer.
The Coupar Angus to Blairgowrie road was turnpiked in 1835 and a regular omnibus service runs on it to the railway station at Coupar Angus from where Dundee can be easily reached.
The bridge over the Isla at Couttie was built by Government in 1766. It is inconveniently narrow. The riding stone and the wading stone, immediately below the bridge, mark the course of the ford used before the erection of the bridge.” There is also a bridge over the Ardle at Cally, and one over the Blackwater at Strone.
The parish roads are much improved - the road money is applied by two or three of the farmers. Twenty years ago the road ran from the bridge of Couttie across the haughs beside the Isla which were liable to flood and so made travel difficult and dangerous.
Ecclesiastical State.—In detailing the difficulties caused by the location of the church he mentions a ferry at Coupar-Grange. This had been under the control of the Kirk-Session but had passed into the hands of the proprietors of that place although they allow people to be ferried across to the church free of charge.
Page 1199 The Chapel of Persie.—This chapel was set up about 1785 in a district 13 miles from the parish church and has proved very convenient for those living there as well as others from neighbouring parishes.
Page 1202 Markets.—Three cattle markets at Persie, one of which is just before the Falkirk tryst.
Inns.—One at Persie.
Fuel.—Coal from the railway depots is used in the lower part of the parish and peat in the higher part as well as coal carted in from Coupar-Angus for burning lime.
Miscellaneous Observations.
A bridge over the Ericht would make the parish church more accessible to a considerable portion of the parishioners.

Page 208 Fuel.—The main fuels are peat and turf. However, since a road was made through Gleneagles and Glendovan over the Ochils, coal is now brought some 10 miles from Blairingone.

Page 210 There are remains near Gleneagles of what might have been an outpost of the Roman camp at Ardoch. A Roman road, called the Street Road, runs north of here along Strathern.
Page 212 As the soil is gravelly the roads here are good and easy to maintain. The statute labour work was poorly carried out; it is now commuted. In recent years bridges have been made mostly by the county over some streams that come from the Ochils and which could be difficult in flood. Three bridges have been built at Blackford.

Map of Blackford
Blackford. Based on 1/4 inch OS map, 1923

NSA, 297
Topography And Natural History. Name.—The name may be English or perhaps derived from the Gothic word fort that implies a road or passage - this would be appropriate for its position between Strathallan and Strathearn.
Situation, Extent, etc.—Mention of the road between Stirling and Perth.
Page 298 Antiquities.—There are entrenchments at three locations that may have been outposts of Ardoch.
Page 300 Parochial Economy.
The two markets here are overshadowed by those of Auchterarder.
All the roads are good. There are about 20 miles of turnpike.
Miscellaneous Observations. The new roads have made for easy communication and serve as an impetus to improvements.

Page 473 Placename Bo-rainich, the Ferry Booths

Page 473 Antiquities. - Mention of the Andermass market that used to be held on the east bank of the Tilt; it is now held in Perth.
Page 475 "….along Glengairnog, are to be seen some pieces of a road, called Rod-na-banrinn, or the Queen's Road; by which, probably, one or more of the Queens used to go to the forest of Atholl."

Map of Blair Atholl showing location of the Queen's road
Blair Atholl. Map based on half-ich OS map 1911

Page 476 Mention of raiding by the men of Suaineart about 200 years before; they were killed at a ford called Ath-baird-suainidh, a mile north of Blair. He refers to the custom of raising cairns over those who had died, and adding a stone when passing one of these. This was probably to protect the bodies from wolves.
"On the south side of the hill, and north end of Lochgarry, lies Dail-an-spideil, i.e. the Plain of the Hospital. Here, in all probability, there was formerly a house of entertainment, to supply the place of an inn; and possibly too, supported by knights, or some religious order. There was another spideil at the foot of the Grampian mountains, on the Marr road."
Page 481 The distance to market towns makes carriage, whether of produce or coal, very expensive. Fuel generally is becoming scarce. Dunkeld is the nearest post-office, which is very inconvenient.

NSA, 558
Page 572 Fuel.—Many bring in coal from Perth, a journey of 35 miles. There is plenty of peat but the mosses are at some distance over bad hill roads and take a long time to gather. The lack of ready fuel results in less use of lime for manure.

Loch Tummel, c.1900. Detroit Publishing Company
View of Loch Tummel with Schiehallion in the background.

Page 573 Parochial Economy.
Goods are obtained from Pitlochrie, Dunkeld, or Perth. Four carriers go to Perth each week. The Perth to Inverness toll-road passes through and there are fine country roads through Strathtummel and Glenerichkie as well as sufficient bridges including the new Tilt Bridge. Blair Atholl has a post office at which the Royal Mail coach calls every day.

Page 575 Fairs—Blair Atholl, Bridge of Tilt, and Trinafour.

—There are inns at Bridge of Tilt, Blair and Dalnacardoch on the Inverness road and one at Trinafour where the Glenerichkie road meets the toll-road from Dalnacardoch to Tummel Bridge. There are several more, all convenient for foot-passengers.
Fuel.—Peat and coal.
Miscellaneous Observations. The military road from Dunkeld to the north was made into a toll-road about 14 years ago with improvements to its line and gradients, particularly at Blair.

Note: For full coverage of roads in Blair-Atholl and surrounding district see Highland Highways: Old Roads in Atholl, John Kerr, John Donald Publishers, 1991.

Page 197 In a list of trades it is noted that there are 4 carriers to Perth and Dundee.
Page 201 Three annual fairs; a weekly market has been tried but has not been successful. There are 19 dram-shops; being on a military road anyone can apply for a licence which costs one shilling.
Page 205 Roads and Bridges.— The road from Coupar of Angus to Fort George passes through the parish. It was funded by Government and is maintained by the statute labour with occasional help from the military. It would have been preferable if it had avoided the present hilly route and crossed the Ericht here to run on the east of the river to recross near Craig-hall and pass through Mawes. The Dunkeld to Kirriemuir road intersects it. The statute labour is now commuted. There are many small bridges and four larger ones; two are on the military road, one on the Black-Water and one on the Ericht; these two were built by subscription.
Page 207 Disadvantages.— With Perth and Dundee so distant much time is wasted when carrying coal and other items. However, this will improve when the new bridge over the Isla and the new road into Perth are completed.

NSA, 896
Page 923 Town lit by gas.
Page 924 Means of Communication.—There are 3 public roads: the Great North Road from Perth to Fort George; the Cupar-Angus to Blairgowrie road, turnpiked in 1832; the road from Kirriemuir, Forfar, &c. to Dunkeld. As this is not a busy road it is not kept in the best of condition.
There are five bridges in the parish, viz. the Bridge of Blairgowrie, by which the Great North Road crosses the Ericht, the Bridge of Craighall, where it recrosses the river; the Bridge of Cally, where it crosses the Ardle; the Bridge of Carsie, by which it crosses the water of Lunan, and the bridge of Lornty, where the old military road crossed the Lornty.” They are in fairly good condition although they are too narrow and have a rise in the centre. Those at Craighall and Cally meet the road at an acute angle which makes them dangerous and awkward and there is an unprotected drop of 60 or more feet at the latter.
There is a fine iron suspension bridge at Glenericht estate.
Page 930 Fairs.—There are 6 fairs and a fortnightly market for carttle and grain during winter and spring.
There are 36 inns etc.
Fuel.—In general, coal from Dundee and Perth and firewood is used in the town and lower part of the parish and peat from Cochrage moss in the upper part.

Page 574 Etymology of the Name. Some say the name comes from Calla-straid where Calla means the landing place at the ferry and Straid the street leading up to the castle.

Page 575 Erection etc. In explaining that Callander had once been two separate parishes, Leney and a chapel dependent on Inchmahone, he refers to a flood that swept away the bridge over the southern part of the river that led to the chapel that was dependent on Inchmahone.

Map of Callander
Callander. Based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923

Page 576 Romantic Prospects. There is a carriage road over to the Trossachs.
Page 583 "Near the top of Benledi, there is a small lake, called Lochan-Nan-Corp, the small Lake of dead Bodies, which got its name, from a whole company attending a funeral having dropt through the ice, and being drowned, when passing from Glenfin-glass to the chapel of St. Bridget."

Click for complete picture
Detail of "Bracklin Bridge (near Cullenden)" drawn by T.Allom, engraved by J.C.Varrall and published by G. Virtue in Scotland Illustrated, 1837. For full image click here.
Image courtesy of ancestryimages.com

Page 590 Cascade.—He gives a poetic description of the glen between Brackland and Achinlaich where there is a bridge of just a few sticks, branches and turf 50 feet above a deep pool.
Note: For details of the various bridges at this site see here.
Page 595 Bridge in Callendar.
Page 597 There are two large fairs and 3 smaller ones.
Page 605 Inn and Ale-Houses.—Inn at Callander where a post-chaise is available, and many ale/dram houses.
Roads and Bridges.—"Our roads are in tolerable order, considering their number. Our statute service is partly commuted, and partly exacted in labour, as the gentlemen see the probability of its turning out to the best account. Several bridges have been lately erected, and are properly taken care of. We owe much of our convenience in this respect to the funds of the annexed estates, and to the public spirit of the country at large."
Page 608 He refers to a chain of watchtowers stretching far inland which could signal the approach of invaders in minutes.
Page 610 He does not think the "Roman Camp" near the river to be Roman.

Military road - Pass of LenyPage 622 Advantages.—"This district has the advantage of being situated on the great military road, which leads from Stirling to Fort William, and of having 5 fairs in the year. The merchants of this country, being near the Highlands, have the first offer for all the commodities in which they can supply the places beyond them; and its vicinity to the Low Country, enables it to partake of the plenty which there abounds.
This place lies so near the cattle markets at Doune, and in that neighbourhood, that our graziers have not only a ready sale for their own cows, but can let any remainder they have of grass, in their parks, to great advantage, both while the drovers from the Highlands are going forward, and when any cattle remain unsold, from one market to another
Disadvantages.—Coal and lime are 16 or more miles distant. Although a road is being made to Comrie and district there is still a need for the road from Callander to Thornhill, and the Bridge of Frews to be put in order, and the line changed in places.

NSA, 349
Page 349 Name.—“Callander is generally supposed to be derived from the Gaelic names Calladh, signifying a ferry, and sraid, the way leading to the ferry, by which is meant the ferry across the river Teath, a little below the place where the present bridge stands.
Page 354 “Through Callander passes the principal road to the Western Highlands by Lochearnhead, Tyndrum, and Black-mount; and from this place, there are several other roads branching out in different directions.”
Page 357 Parochial Economy. Means of Communication.—There is a daily post and a regular coach service to Stirling and carriers to Glasgow, Edinburgh and Stirling. Post-chaises and cars can be hired.
Page 359 Fairs.—Several fairs are held throughout the year.
Inns.—There is a large inn for travellers on the West Highland road and for tourists in the Trossachs. There are other inns and one at Loch Achray.
Fuel.—As the roads are much better, coal is used more often even though it comes from Bannockburn, 18 miles away. Peat is also used and lies about a mile from Callendar.
Miscellaneous Observations.Wool is sent to Bannockburn, Glasgow, and Liverpool, and bought by the carpet-manufacturers.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
A Description of the Parish of Callender 1723

Volume 1, Page 134 In Callender parish there is a ford over the Teith near the church and a boat a little to the east. The water of Keltie has a bridge and a ford near where it joins the Teith. At the Chapell of Little Lenie over the Garvusk there is a “good timber bridge with stone and lime work in the water.” The river can be forded above and below this bridge.
The king’s highway (from Edinburgh to Fort William) runs from the bridge of Keltie by the kirktoun and Kilmahoy towards Balquidder parish.

Page 492 Eight boatmen in the parish.
Page 498 In 1740 the Tay was frozen over for 6 weeks and loaded carts could easily cross.
Page 501 Fuel.— Peat etc. is now supplemented with coal, brought from Perth, and in summer sometimes 30 or 40 miles from Fife.
Page 505 He gives details of the Roman fortress at Inchtutill. The Picts are said to have had a town nearby which they abandoned on the approach of the Romans.
Three miles to the east there appears to have been another camp in the moor of Meiklour.
A road crossed the Tay above Perth by a wooden bridge at a place called Rome, near to Scone and ran northwards through St Martin’s and Cargill parishes - traces can still be seen. When this road reached the Isla, a bridge would have been needed to reach the camp in Meiklour moor. Close by is the Cleaven Dyke raised as a defence by the Romans.
Page 508 Advantages and Disadvantages.— The new road being made to Perth by Stanley will be very useful; even more if a proposed bridge over the Isla near to the Tay with a road to Perth from the bridge are made. The Dunkeld to Cupar in Angus road passes through here. Though busy it is not properly made, due to the inadequacies of the statute labour system. However, now that this is commuted, improvements can be expected.
The main disadvantages here are the distance from coal and lime.

NSA, 670
Page 674 Antiquities.—He gives considerable details of the camp at Inchtuthil.
Page 680 Parochial Economy.
Market-Towns.—Dunkeld, Blairgowrie, Coupar-Angus and Perth serve as market-towns for the parish.
Means of Communication, Etc.—Dunkeld is the post-town.
Our only turnpike is between the boat of Caputh and Dunkeld, beautifully Macadamized. Statute labour roads run from the church to the bridge of Isla with a branch to Clunie, and from that again, by Snaigow and Loch of the Lows, to Dunkeld. There are no public carriages or coaches running through which is inconvenient, and unfortunately a projected railway between Perth and Dunkeld has not proved to be feasible.
Bridges, Boats, Etc.—Dunkeld bridge over the Tay was completed in 1809 and replaced the dangerous Eastferry; and a bridge was made over the Isla just before it meets the Tay and connects the Perth and Blairgowrie roads.
Between these two bridges, at Caputh Ferry, the old chain-boat was replaced in 1834 by a new design where a platform has been placed on two long narrow boats and is attached to both sides of the river by a chain passing over a fly-wheel (image). Four carts with their horses can be carried at a time on a five minute journey. This ferry allows access to Perth by Stanley.
A similar boat has been introduced at Meiklour, 5 miles to the east, and gives access between Stanley and Blairgowrie.
Page 684 Fair.—Three cattle fairs are held at Meikleour.
Public Houses.—Nine.
Fuel.— Coal is brought in from Perth which makes it expensive and peat from a moss beyond Reimore is too far away to be of use. Wood is also used as it is cheaper.

Page 532 There are 2 ferries over the Tay and one over the Isla although it is hoped to build a bridge over the Isla near to the Tay which will make the Isla ferry unneccessary. The ferries are well run, are safe, and have reasonable fares.
Page 534 Description of a Roman camp called the Castlehill near the confluence of the Tay and Isla and opposite the castle of Kinclaven.

In discussing a charter of 1538 he refers to the Abbey of Cupar being supplied with fuel from the wood of Campsey along a road called the Abbey road. (Note: This was a road SW of Coupar-Angus called variously the "Abbey Road" and the "Roman Road" on OS maps - see Canmore entry NO13NE 24)

Map of Roman road north of Perth
Course of the Roman road north of Perth as noted by the Statistical Accounts and the 6" OS maps. For details of up to date findings on the many Roman remains in the area see RCAHMS etc. For continuation southwards see Trinity Gask and Muthill. Above map based on 1/2 inch OS map, 1913.

Although Roman remains can be difficult to trace because of the passage of time and agricultural improvements there are distinct remains of a Roman road, 20 feet wide, of "rough round stones rudely laid together", running from Innerpeffry to Duplin Parks. From there to Bertha little can be seen but a quarter of a mile above Bertha where there was probably a station there is a ridge of stones extending into the river along with possible piles that suggest there was a bridge here. Once over the Tay the road runs by Rome, Sherriftown, Innerbuist, Byres, Stobhall and Gallowhill. It runs up to the Ila at Windyedge where remains of another bridge can be seen and the location itself is still called Bridgend. This allowed access to various Roman stations towards Blairgowrie where as Boethius (Hector Boece) says, the battle of Mons Graupius was fought. The road was probably made by the army based at Ardoch.
Page 539 Wheat and barley are taken to Perth and Cupar; these are the nearest market towns.

This was a pre-turnpike between Perth and Coupar Angus that ran through St Martins. It is shown on Adair's map of 1683 (NLS). Looking south near Redstone, 4 miles south of Coupar Angus.

Page 542 Roads. — The new turnpike from Perth to Cupar of Angus passes through the south of the parish and a bill has been obtained for another turnpike which will run in the northern part from Perth to a proposed bridge over the Isla near the ferry at Kinclaven. Although the cross-roads have been neglected, the tolls will be applied to the upkeep of the turnpikes and allow the statute labour to be applied to the cross-roads. This circumstance, and the commutation of the statute labour (which has allowed twice as much work to be done) should lead to improvements.
Turnpike roads are most effective in improving the country; cultivation of fields near these roads follows as a matter of course. In the list of occupations there is a toll-man.
Page 549 Advantages and Disadvantages.— Disadvantages are the distance from markets and the expense of land carriage; coal has to be brought 9 miles from the port of Perth or 30 miles from the coal-mines.

NSA, 1167
Page 1168 Antiquities.—He gives some details of a Roman camp near the confluence of the Tay and Isla and Kinclaven, called the Castlehill and gives an extract from the OSA which is summarised above.
A Roman road or paved way runs along the high grounds in this parish, which deserves particular notice. This road, which is about twenty feet broad, and composed of rough round stones rudely laid together, can be plainly traced from Innerpeffry, through the parish of Gask, (where there is a camp,) to Duplin: from thence to Bertha, few vestiges of it can be discovered. About a quarter of a mile above Bertha, (which seems to have been a Roman station from the number of urns that have been discovered there), a ridge of stones, which extend far into the river, and a great number of large oak trees, which have been dug up there, and many of which still remain in the water, give strong appearances of a military Roman bridge over the Tay there. From thence the road is to be traced to Rome, (which probably got its name at that time), passed Sherifftown and Innerbuist, where there is a large camp and several tumuli, through the parish of St Martin's to Byres, keeping the ridge of the hill through the estate of Stobhall; and passing near Gallowhill, where it is very discernible, it bends its course to the Isla at Windyedge, where the remains of another military bridge are distinctly to be traced, and the houses adjacent to which are still known to the old residenters by the name of Bridgend. This bridge seems to have communicated with different Roman stations which are to be seen on different places on the extensive plain on the other side of the river towards Blairgowrie, where the Romans fought a bloody battle with the united armies of the Caledonians and Picts. When this military road was made is uncertain; probably by the army at Ardoch, to preserve a communication between their different camps, and as convenient for their after marches, had they conquered the country.* (Old Statistical Account.)

Page 226 Roman encampment at Meiklour.
Page 258 Mention of the Steed-Stalls, a feature consisting of 8 ridges alternating with eight troughs. It may have been a native outpost for watching the Roman camps nearby.
Page 260 In a long footnote he discusses the various proposals for the location of the battle of Mons Graupius, including the parish of Clunie.
Page 268. Bishop George Brown of Dunkeld, who died in 1514 was said to have been able to take 4 different routes between Dunkeld and his castle on the loch of Clunie, all on his own land. He started one of the early bridges at Dunkeld.
Page 272 In 1740 when there was a very poor crop, some had to travel in the winter “as far as Murrayshire for meal, which they brought across the mountains with considerable labour and expense.
In 1769 several of the bridges were swept away in a storm.
Page 275 The roads are improving though still very bad in winter. The commutation of the statute labour is expected to help.
Too much time is spent in winning peats from distant mountainous locations - "the roads that lead to them, are fit only for killing the horses, and dashing the carts in pieces." Coal has to be brought from Perth - there is no bridge over the Tay between Aberfeldy and Perth, although carriage of coal and lime and other items will be much easier once the new bridge over the Isla at Meiklour, and the road from there to Perth are completed.

NSA, 1024
Page 1025 Two huge cairns here are thought to have been the boundary between the Caledonian and Pictish kingdoms.
East of the Hill of Gourdie lie the Steeds-stalls, which may have been an outpost of the Caledonians keeping watch over the Roman camp at Inchtuthill, in the plain below.
1026 “The parish, besides supplying itself, exports a quantity of victual to Perth, Dunkeld, and the Highlands.
1028 Poor. “The poor of the parish are given coal, which is driven from Perth by the farmers.

Page 240 Quarries and Roads.— The Perth to Cupar turnpike passes through here; the statute labour is commuted.
Page 246 In a reference to the battle of Luncarty mention is made of a ford over the Tay.

, 210
Page 216 Parochial Economy. There used to be two annual markets in Kinrossie. Cattle and small wares are now transferred to Burreltown and other places. The main market town is Perth which is reached by the turnpike road from Cupar-Angus. There is a postal service each day and the Defiance coach passes daily on its way between Edinburgh and Aberdeen.
Page 218 Inns.—One.
Fuel.—English coal from Perth.

Page 182 Meal is "bought from the neighbouring parishes of Monivaird, Crieff and Muthil."
Page 185 Roads and Bridges.—"There is one great road through the parish, leading from Crieff to Loch-Erne head; and several smaller roads through the glens. Between Crieff and Loch Erne there are 5 stone bridges across the river Erne, 3 of which consist of 4 arches. There are besides several stone and wooden bridges on the Ruchil, the Lednaig, etc. The roads through this and the neighbouring parishes were formerly made by the statute labour; but this was lately converted into money."
Page 186 Advantages and Disadvantage. — The good roads here allow the Low Country and the Highlands to be easily reached. Considerable trade is carried on with Killin and Balquhidder. Lime is brought from a quarry in the west of the parish along Loch Erne and landed at the east end of the loch where people from here and Monivaird can purchase it.
Fuel is scarce and expensive. Peat takes much time to obtain and the nearest good coal is 25 miles distant. This situation would improve if a road was made across the hills to the south of Comrie as the journey would be much shorter.
Antiquities.— There are vestiges of two Roman camps to be seen at Dalgincross, near Comrie.

View of Comrie, c.1900. Detroit Publishing Co.
See also "View on the Earn, Comrie" and "Comrie, Bridge of Ross"

NSA, 578
Page 582 Civil History. There is a tradition that Dundurn was a preaching station of Fillan, the Culdee saint, and that there was a holy well nearby.
In the last 50 years the traces of one of the two Roman camps at Dalginross have been completely destroyed by ploughing. They seem tio have been connected with Ardoch and Strageath and had a Roman road running to the east through Strathearn. It may have been here that the battle of Mons Graupius was fought, or perhaps where the ninth legion suffered its night attack. There are local traditions and place names that give some support to these surmises.

Map of Comrie
Comrie. Based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923

Page 590 Parochial Economy.
Means of Communication.
—There is a post-office here, subordinate to Crieff. There are about 20 miles of turnpike road. There are no public coaches but there are carriers to Edinburgh, Perth, Crieff and Killin. There are several stone and wooden bridges over the Earn, Lednock and Ruchill. A canal or a railroad from Perth to Loch Earn have been proposed and while they would be greatly advantageous are unlikely to be economic.
Page 594 Fairs.—Five are held in Comrie though the main fairs in this area are at Crieff. There is also a weekly market.
Inns, Etc—Thirteen, which is far too many.
Fuel.—Coals, wood, and peat. Coal are brought from Bannockburn and the distance is less since the road between Ardoch and Comrie was made although it is still 22 miles. The peat is distant and not easily accessible.
Miscellaneous Observations. The roads are much improved; one leading south is very useful. A canal or railroad would be beneficial as would a road
to Loch-Tayside through Glen-Lednock.

See the Highland Strathearn site for extracts from The Reports of the Annexed Estates 1755-1769 which have some details of roads.

Page 4 "The bridge over the Isla was built in 1765. There is no bridge between that and Perth on the one side, nor between it and the bridge of Deane on the other."
Town, Roads, Etc.—The town is divided by a rivulet, one part falling in Perthshire, the other in Forfarshire. The streets are paved and lit. A new turnpike road from Perth meets the road from Dundee. There is a weekly market and 4 fairs.

Old image of Coupar-Angus with link to original
Town of Coupar Angus

Page 6 Reference to a plan for a canal between Perth and Forfar that would have passed through Coupar-Angus.
Page 8 A list of professions notes that there were 2 drovers, 9 carriers to Dundee and Perth, 1 to Edinburgh, 45 public house keepers.
Page 9 Disadvantages.—Peat is both distant and very scarce and coal, having to come from Perth or Dundee, is too expensive for many. However, the new roads will make a great difference. He remarks that a canal past the Linn of Campsey and improvements to the Tay would make it feasible to make the Tay navigable for horse-drawn boats.
Antiquities—Roman camps can be seen at Coupar and at Campmuir, 2 miles to the south-west. They are thought to be from the time of Agricola.
A charter of the Hays of Errol granted the Abbey of Coupar "free passage with their cattle over all the lands belonging to the house of Errol."

NSA, 1141
Town centre of Coupar-AngusPage 1142 Antiquities.—There are remains of a Roman camp just east of the churchyard.
Page 1144 He gives some details of lands owned by the abbey of Coupar-Angus and of a charter by which Guilbert de Haya miles, dominus de Errol, "grants to the monks of this place, "liberum transitum sine impedimento cum bobus suis super terras suas per omnes vias et semitas (free passage with their cattle etc)."
Page 1147 Parochial Economy.
Weekly market here and in nearby Meigle and Blairgowrie.
Coupar is a post-town. Letters are delivered daily. The Defiance coach passes through between Edinburgh and Aberdeen, and a railway runs to Dundee.
Page 1150 Markets, Etc.—“There are yearly markets for horses and cattle, besides those which are held weekly. These are now much less frequented, than they formerly were.”
Alehouses.—Twenty-four, far too many.
Fuel.—English coal brought from Dundee by railway.
Miscellaneous Observations.
There is now gas lighting for houses and streets.

Page 584 The rivers all have stone bridges, funded by contributions. The bridge at Crieff was the second one to be built over the Earn; it was built between 1690 and 1699 from the vacant stipend of the parish.

Page 589 In a list of occupations there are 9 carriers, 29 carters and 2 messengers.
Page 595 After detailing the manufactures and the imports of the parish he says that “2 carts go regularly once a fortnight to Edinburgh; 2 carts or more once a fortnight to Glasgow; 4 carts twice a-week to Perth; and two or 3 carts twice a-week to Stirling.”
Markets. There is a busy weekly market and three annual fairs. There had been a major cattle market here up to the middle of the century, which has now removed to Falkirk. Up to 30,000 cattle were sold for the English market. He explains the causes for the trade moving to Falkirk. Partly this was due to improvements to the countryside making less land available for grazing and enclosures limiting the roads, and partly to Falkirk being more easily and quickly reached. There had also been too many restrictions applied in Crieff and exploitation of custom dues.
Page 599 Two chaisses are kept for hire at the main inn.
Page 601 Fuel is either hard or expensive to obtain - coal has to come from 22 miles away.

NSA, 487
Page 502 There is thought to be a Roman road running through the lands of the Brioch and connecting the camps of Strageath and Dalginross. “When the present road was being made through Burrel Street, a pavement was discovered under ground, composed of common flag stones, bedded close together, in the usual way that Roman roads are laid, and manifestly surrounded with a different sort of earth from that which was found in the immediate neighbourhood.
Page 515 Parochial Economy. Town.—Crieff itself is the market town with the main trade carried on with Glasgow although there are connections with Edinburgh, Perth, Stirling, Dundee and some towns in England. In a listing of trades, mention is made of 7 carriers and 21 carters.
Means of Communication.—Crieff is a post-town. The roads hereabouts are excellent, the Tay-Bridge Road through Glenalmond being particularly notable. The mail and a stage-coach runs between Perth and Sirling every day and passengers can be taken to the canal for onward travel to Glasgow. There is also a coach from Crieff to Edinburgh that goes by Gleneagles, and there are carriers to Glasgow as well as to Edinburgh by Stirling and by Dunfermline. Other carriers go to Perth and ones from Comrie, Killin, and Aberfeldy pass through.
The bridges have mostly been built by subscription. That in Crieff was built in the 1690’s out of unused church funds. In 1715 one of the arches was broken down by the Highlanders to impede pursuit. When rebuilt a frame from another bridge must have been used as the new arch is out of keeping with the other arches.
He refers to surveys that had been made both for a canal between Perth and Lochearn, and a railway between Perth and Crieff. The idea of a canal has been dropped but it is hoped that the railway will be built.
Plans for a gas manufactory have been dropped.
Page 525 Fairs.—Weekly market. In the past there were three fairs but as Crieff is in such a central location fairs from neighbouring parishes have been transferred here so that there are now nine in total for the sale of livestock, farm produce etc.
Inns, Alehouses, Etc.—The main inn The Drummond Arms is very busy and offers fine accommodation. There are 48 spirit licences held in the parish, which is twice what is needed.
Fuel.—Coal is brought in from Bannockburn, Dollar etc.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Some Short Notes on the Parishes of Blackford, Ochterarder, Dunning etc in Perthshire 1725
Page 138 Crieff parish - mention of a bridge over the Earn in Crieff.

10/131 Appendix 18/649
Page 137 There is a ferry to Borrowstounness.
Page 144 Details of the once important coal works of Culross that had led to a considerable trade being carried on when they were at their height.
Page 145 Miscellaneous Observations.—"The public roads through the parish of Culross are, in general, very bad, the post road especially, which, being conducted too close to the shore, is thereby overflowed, at spring tides, to a great depth, rendering it at such times not only impassable, but to strangers extremely dangerous. There is no prospect of having this defect remedied but by obtaining a turnpike act."

CulrossNSA, 597
Page 599 Two hundred years ago the town had a considerable trade in coal with Holland from where many goods were imported and distributed throughout the district. This has long ceased and coal now has to be brought in to the town.
Page 603 Parochial Economy.
Means of Communication
— Since the last Account, a turnpike road has replaced “the former incommodious post road along the sea shore.” A small pier has now been built which will be very useful for the passage and fishing boats.
Page 607 Inns.—Seven in all.

Page 470 Lime has to be brought from “Lord Elgin's lime works at Charlestown, or to bring it in carts from the hills of Fife, the Lomonds, or Forthar, at the distance of 8 or 10 miles. Our nearest coal-mines are at Keltie, at the distance of 18 miles south, from whence they are usually brought in carts during summer, for, the supply of all this country south of Perth. There is no moss nearer than 8 or 9 miles. This scarcity of fuel is severely felt by the lower classes of the people, who having neither cattle nor carriages of their own, must purchase it from others who have, at a dear rate.”
Page 477 Perth is the market town.
Page 480 Three ale-houses sited at the smiths' shops where people congregate and exchange news etc.

Map of Dron
Dron. Based on 1/2 inch OS map 1913

NSA, 862
Mention of the great road from Perth to Kinghorn and the Queensferry.
Page 863 Coal is brought in from Keltie and Loch Gellie about 20 miles away and supplies the country south of Perth. Peat has to come from 8 or 9 miles.
Public-Houses.— Three.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Rind and Dron 1723
Volume 1, Page 126 There are three ferries in Rind parish: one for those on foot comes from Carie in Abernethy parish, two others which also take horses are from the heughhead in Abernethy parish and from the Carse of Gowrie - this one leads to the Bridge of Earn.

Page 127 Two roads pass through Dron parish. One runs south from Perth over the Bridge of Earn and goes to Kingorn; the other runs from Abernethy over to the Stirling road. Where the first road runs through here it is known as the Peth of Drone - “yea it goes through the midel of the Paroch up the Peth of Drone which peth is a highway through that chain of hills which lyes along the south side of the river of Arne….”
Note: See the newsletter Rambles on Old Roads, issue 6 for a feature by Neil Ramsay of Heritage Paths on the Path of Dron and the nearby Wallace Road.

Page 153 Fuel. — Fuel is very scarce and the peats are poor and are far distant.
Page 154 Miscellaneous Remarks.— The roads are reasonable and are improving. The king's road from Stirling to Inverness passes through. The other roads are statute labour, which is exacted in kind; it would be more efficient if it was commuted.

Image of Dull and Fortingall parishes
Looking towards Dull and Fortingall parishes













NSA, 752
Page 756 "There is a fine inn at Amulree much frequented for leisure pursuits.."
Page 757 Roads on both sides of Loch Tummel.
Page 757 Rivers.—The Tay is easily forded here. Inn at Tummel Bridge.
Page 765 Antiquities. Abbey.—It is not known when the abbey was established though it was very early. It had an Abthanedum associated with it, one of the three in Scotland, viz. the Abthaneries of Dull, Kirkmichael, and Madderty. In discussing this he mentions localities in and about the village of Dull, such as Sraid nan Gaibhnean, Sraid nan Clachairean, etc, i.e. "the smith's street," "the mason's street."
The monastery was a sanctuary, the limits being marked by crosses. He gives details of the sanctuary and notes that "These ancient land-marks were, not many years ago, sacrilegiously removed, and, with a Goth-and-Vandal-like taste, erected to grace a neighbouring gateway; and now the only remaining evidence of the abbey's fallen greatness is the " Cross of Dull."
Page 775 Parochial Economy. Market-Towns.—The nearest are Dunkeld, Perth, and Crieff, all a considerable distance away. However, most items are easily obtained in Pitlochrie and Aberfeldy.
Means of Communication.—He gives details of the postal service in the area by a diligence that carried passengers, a post-gig, and runners. These covered Aberfeldy (served from Dunkeld), Kenmore, Fortingall, Amulree and Glenquaich, the country near Pitlochrie, and Kinloch-Rannoch.
For three years a public coach has been running from Dunkeld to Lochlomond during summer and is used by tourists and travellers.
Three turnpike roads run in the parish, about 30 miles in all, and there are three tolls. There are carriers to Perth and Crieff.
A bridge over the Lyon is need to allow easy access to Kenmore.
Page 782 Fairs.—He gives details of the fairs held at Aberfeldy, Amulree, Coshieville, Kirkton of Foss and Tummel-bridge.
Inns.—“There are five inns in the parish and six ale-houses. The former are indispensable for the accommodation of travellers, but the latter may, with great propriety, be suppressed.
Fuel.— Peat, and coal brought from Perth or Crieff.
Miscellaneous Observations
… the opening up of turnpike, and the regular repairing and macadamizing of private, roads; the establishing of regular carriers; the letting of horses, post-chaises, and other vehicles for hire at most of the principal inns, united with the frequent and regular conveyance of letters and newspapers by means of the post-office system, are sufficient indications of the wonderful transition experienced by the inhabitants of this district in their social and trafficking intercommunication with their more southern neighbours. At that time sledges and creels were generally used instead of carts; thrashing-mills had no existence; and private gigs and carriages were exceedingly rare, if not unknown.
He adds that rebuilding Comrie Bridge over the Lyon would be a great benefit and alludes to long opposition to this bridge by “local and private interests.”

Page 402 River, Fish, and Bridge—Sloops can sail up the Earn some 3 miles to a bridge where they unload lime and coal. The bridge (bridge of Earn) is very old; it is maintained by the town of Perth but the toll they receive is nothing like the cost of repairs (Canmore record with images).

NSA, 790
Page 792 Mention that the Bridge of Earn had been erected in the 14th century and that the course of the river had changed since then.
Page 793 Mention of the Dunbarny boat that gave a shorter route to Perth than the Bridge of Earn.

Map of Dunbarny parish
Dunbarny. Based on 1/2 inch OS map 1913.

Page 810 Village of Dunbarny.—For those living in the old village of Dunbarney, “a ferry-boat plied on the Earn, in a line with the west wall of the old church-yard, after crossing which, the villagers travelled to Perth by the Hilton knowe, the field called the " Muckle Bank," and St Magdalen's farm.
Old Bridge of Earn.—He refers to a charter of Robert the Bruce dating from 1329 that allowed the town of Perth “to take stones out of the quarries of Kincarochie and Balcormac for building the bridge of Tay and the bridge of Earn.”
The bridge was maintained until the reformation by the Church. It had 5 arches, one being added 80 years ago as the water was encroaching on the north bank of the river.
When the new bridge was built, a fragment of the old one was left, comprehending two arches. This dilapidated ruin is beginning to be overgrown with ivy, and presents a picturesque appearance.
In a footnote he recounts an offer made by the county to the town of Perth to uphold the bridge if the pontage was transferred to them, an offer which was refused and which cost the town a great deal of money when an arch had to be replaced.
A reference from 1614 says that an arch fell down “being evil bigged from the beginning, filled only with clay and earth….”
Page 817 Villages. Details of the old and new villages and a reference to boats being unloaded near the bridge.
Page 818 Mention of bridge of Forteviot.
Page 821 Parochial Economy.
Market-Towns, Etc.—The nearest is Perth. There is a post-office here with runners to Newburgh, Dunning, and Auchterarder.
Several coaches pass through the Bridge of Earn every day, two mail-coaches, the Coburg, the Aberdeen Defiance, pass and repass in travelling between Edinburgh and Perth, and the Fife Defiance does the same between Perth and Kirkcaldy.
There is one toll-road in this parish, which traverses its surface the length of three miles, being part of the great northern road. Besides it, there are four good statute-labour roads; one of these is the old turnpike, which intersected it, in passing from the Wicks of Beglie to the old bridge.
Bridges.—The new bridge was completed in 1821 at a cost of L.16,000 by the city of Perth. It has 3 arches, is 24 feet wide, 28 feet above the bed of the river, and 345 feet in length. There is a pontage on it which raises L.1000 p.a.
Chruch door collections had been used to build and maintain a small bridge near Kantillo.
Page 824 Fuel.—Coal comes from Kelty, Lochgelly, and other districts in Fifeshire, as well as Newcastle coal landed on the Earn.
Ale-houses.—Eleven public houses and the Moncrieffe Hotel.

Page 328 Roads and Bridges.—The statute labour is insufficent to keep the roads in repair. The great military road passes through here and it is felt that it needs to be made a turnpike but this idea has been opposed by districts to the north of this parish.
There are 6 bridges over the Allan, 4 of them in this parish; they are maintained from the statute labour and conversion money.
Fuel.—Although coal has to be brought about 12 miles from Alloa, it is starting to replace the use of peat as much time has to be spent obtaining these.
Alehouses, Inns, &c.—Twenty nine in Dunblane, and 12 in other parts of the parish.

Dunblane, c.1900. Detroit Publishing Company
Dunblane and cathedral

NSA, 1038
Page 1042 Parochial Economy. Market-Town, Etc.—Dunblane is a market-town and has a post-office. Several mail and stage coaches pass through each day.
There is an old and narrow bridge over the Allan - as it is on the main road between Glasgow and Perth it should be widened.

—Their numbers have thankfully dropped from 41 some forty years ago to sixteen.


MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Description of Dunblane Parish
Page 311 Number of bridges mentioned. Highways from Kilbride to Dunblane and Stirling, Stirling to Perth, and to Crieff and the North Highlands. At Ardoch the “neather“ bridge consists of four land stales of stone covered with planks of oak and flags of stone; at Kinbuck there is a similar bridge with five land stalls and covered with timber and flags.

Dunkeld and Dowally


OSA 20/410 Appendix 20/456
City of Dunkeld
Page 411 Description from 1766 of Dunkeld as seen from the road.
Page 414 12 carters, 12 inn-keepers.
Page 432 Fairs And Markets.
There are six yearly fairs in Dunkeld and a weekly market.

Dunkeld Bridge designed by Telford

Page 441 Bridge.
A bridge, partly of timber, partly of stone, is said to have been started in 1469 but it is not known if it was completed. In 1513 Bishop Brown started a bridge which was completed by Bishop Gavin Douglas. Part of the arch on the north bank, and piles on which the pillars stood can be seen. It is not known when it was destroyed but its loss is keenly felt. The river in flood can delay the ferry crossing or make it impossible, and often results in people bypassing the Dunkeld market in favour of Perth. A bridge could be built for L.12,000 Sterling.
Page 445 Advantages and Disadvantages. The disadvantages are it being 15 miles to Perth the nearest sea-port, having to use a hazardous ferry, and the price of coal.
Page 456 An appendix giving some details of the diocese and its bishops is inserted here.

Page 459 Dowally
Page 461 He describes the road that passes through Dowally towards Atholl mentioning that at the base of King's Seat it has been cut into the steep slope with much labour and expence, that it runs at a height along the steep slope, and that it crosses a number of ravines which descend so steeply that on one side the parapet of the bridges is only 3 feet above the surface yet 30 feet on the other side.
Page 477 Although peats are nearby on good roads a great deal of time has to be spent in gathering them. It may be that farmers will soon see the advantage of obtaining coals from Perth.

(Note: For details of Telford's bridge and earlier bridges see Dunkeld: Telford's Finest Bridge, Christopher R Ford, Perth and Kinross Libraries 2004)

NSA, 958
Page 962 Prior to 1809 when Dunkeld Bridge was completed, the great north road ran on the south of the Tay and Dunkeld was approached from the east on the north side of the river along the High Street as far as the cathedral. The great north road was rerouted through the town along a new street in line with the bridge.

Centre of DunkeldMarkets are held in the old part of the town near the cross.
Residents are assessed for street repairs but gas-lighting is needed for the streets.
Page 968 Many details of the history - Picts, abbey
Page 971 When the cathedral was building in the 1400’s, building stones were brought in from the quarry of Burnbane by currachs mounted on horseback and hence had to be of a small size.
Page 979 William the Lion hunted deer in the area. He stationed himself on a small knoll called the king’s seat and there is a road between this and Craig-y-barns called the King’s pass.
Page 989 Parochial Economy. Market Town etc. Weekly market and 5 annual fairs. There is a daily delivery of mail at the post office. Two large hotels with posting establishments where the Inverness mail-coach calls each day. One of the land arches of the bridge is used as a lock-up for prisoners.
Page 990 All provisions are available here except for sea-fish. These are brought by cart from Arbroath, Dundee and Perth. The main fuel is wood, and while coal is available “peats are not openly sold, as the Highland tenantry are restricted from disposing of them“.
Page 991 He details the early bridges at Dunkeld. The first one existed in 830. Another had its foundation laid in 1461 by one of the bishops and was to be of timber and stone though there is no record of its completion. Yet another was built in the early 1500’s and used by foot passengers and its remains could be seen until fairly recently.
The ferries here besides being inconvenient were dangerous when the river flooded. This led to the late Duke of Atholl deciding to build the bridge; it was completed in 1809 and cost L30,000 of which L5000 was paid by the government. There is a pontage on it which is let at L.700 p.a. The bridge was built on dry land and the river then diverted to flow under it.
His Grace subsequently widened, embanked, and cut miles of turnpike road, and opened up the Atholl districts. Before 1809, the traffic was mostly all conducted on horseback. There was a post runner to Dunkeld, but there was no post beyond it, except his Grace's runner to Blair. Now, there are nearly twenty carriers that pass Dunkeld weekly to the Highland districts. There is the daily mail to Inverness through Atholl, and a stage-coach to Perth thrice a week. In the summer months, there are daily stage-coaches from Dunkeld to Inverness, Dundee, Lochlomond, Perth, &c.

Page 995 The public road enters at the King's Pass and descends gradually on the side of a steep hill. The road is felt dangerous because of the steep ravines that cut across it and the bridges being too narrow and not well protected by parapets.
Page 996 Civil Historv.
The Culdees had a place of worship at the Mains of Kilmorick.
There was a house at Guay set up by one of the bishops around 1340 where strangers could receive hospitality.
There is no post-office and it would be useful if there was one at Guay and one at Moulinearn. A runner comes from Dunkeld although the mail passes through the parish.
Page 997 Eminent Men.—James Fraser, a mill-wright of Dowally invented “self-propelling twin ferry-boats now used in various parts of the rivers Tay and Tummell.” He also invented the Archimedes screw which was used on boats on the Atholl lochs.
Page 998 “The ancient markets within the parish were the Kindallachan market for sheep, and the herd's "japping" market at Dowally for fruit." (Two teams would stand on both sides of the Burn of Dowally and hit the water with sticks until one team gave way. The winners would treat the girls with fruit and take them to the ball later in the day.)
Limestone is brought from Blair, 12 miles away. The main fuel is peat.
Page 999 Farmers used to be pestered by great numbers of tinkers and sturdy vagrants who used at camp at the Bog of Dowally but not since the county constabulary was formed.
There was no road through the parish in 1700, the first being the military road made in 1739 which was not very wide, ran straight, had no bridges and did not have a surface suited to horses. The Duke of Athol at that time was carried in a sedan chair to Blair, the 26 miles taking 13 hours. The Duke did the same journey in 1760 when the roads were slightly improved in 12 hours by coach. The first bridges were built about 78 years ago over the Dowally and the Oishne. The late Duke widened the military roads and built several bridges - there are now 27 of these. At present the mail coach to and from Inverness passes each day, there are 20 carriers each week, and in the summer 5 stage coaches to the north along with other traffic.

Note: See visitdunkeld site for many old postcards.

Page 440 Coal is brought some 12 miles from Blairingone.
Eight inns in the parish, of which six are in the village of Dunning.
Page 441 There is a local tradition that the Earn could once be navigated to beyond Dunning and that there are iron rings on a rock to which boats used to be fastened.

DunningNSA, 716
Page 717 Civil History.
Historical Events and Antiquities.
Colonel Miller, in a paper published in the fourth volume (pps.19-52) of the "Archaeologia Scotica" places the scene of the battle of Mons Grampius between the Ochil and the Lomond hills; and, assuming Caerpow as the site of the city Victoria, founded by Agricola, and Castle Law at Colteucher, as Lindum, he traces a line of forts along the northern base of the Ochils to Ardoch; and from thence to the wall of Antoninus; these he is inclined to attribute to Agricola, as a protection on the north to his newly acquired territory. Three of these forts are in the parish of Dunning, namely, Ardargie, Rossie Law (called by Colonel Miller, Garrison Law), and Ternavie.
Page 722 Parochial Economy. Post-office in Dunning.
Fairs.—Alehouses.—Fuel.— Three fairs, 13 alehouses. Coal is brought from Blairingone and Tillicoultry, 13 and 16 miles away respectively.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Dunning 1723

Page 119 In Dunning parish, the king’s highway from the west of Scotland through Stirling to the East-Bridge of Earn runs through, as does the way to Fife and the “several passages by boat over the Forth.”
There is a bridge in the south east of the parish, and a boat at Innerdunning over the Earn. Two miles NW of Dunning there is the Dalreoch Boat “on a very public way.”

Page 487 There are harbours at Errol and at Powgavie from where much grain is taken to Leith and the Forth, and to Glasgow by the canal. Lime and coal is landed, and other articles come from London and elsewhere.
A passage-boat runs between Errol and Newburgh.
Page 491 He discusses the tradition that the Tay used to run along the foot of the hills.
Page 492 Disadvantages.—The roads here were notoriously bad mostly because good road-making materials had to be brought from a distance so that repairs were neglected. This should change now that a turnpike road from Perth to Dundee is being made through here and another down to the shore, which will allow the statute labour to be focused on the cross-roads.

NSA, 367

Map of Carse of Gowrie
Parishes in the Carse of Gowrie between Perth and Dundee (Errol, Inchture, Longforgan, St Madoes). Until the turnpike was made along with branches to the harbours on the Tay, travel was very difficult in the area. Based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923.

Page 382 Remarkable Occurrences.—The most remarkable was when the turnpike between Perth and Dundee was made some 46 years ago, along with branches to the main harbours on this side of the Tay such as Port-Allen and Polgavie.
Also memorable was the day in 1814 when the Tay was blocked up with ice and allowed several people to cross between Port-Allen and Newburgh.
Page 394 Navigation.— In addition to the ferry between Port-Allen and Newburgh which carries materials and produce as well as passengers there is another that belongs to the port and carries lime and coals and exports grain and potatoes.
Besides the daily passage boat between Port-Allen and Newburgh, which is fitted also for the transmission of lime, timber, iron, farm-produce, and other commodities, there is but one vessel which belongs to the port now mentioned, the only one in this parish.
Page 395 Parochial Economy.
Market-Town.—The nearest is Perth, 10 miles away but there are more advantages to be had by going to Dundee.
Means of Communication.— Post-office at Flatfield and a receiving office in the village with a runner.
There are 9 miles of turnpike road here on which two coaches and the mail run.
Port-Allen is rather dilapidated. A new pier and harbour is projected and will be nearer Errol.
Page 402 Fairs.—One fair is now long discontinued, the other is a hiring fair and is extremely busy.
Inns and Ale-houses.—There are 15 or so, most of them being in the village.
Fuel—Coal both from the Forth and from Newcastle.
Miscellaneous Observations. Major advances have been the excellent turnpike and the greater number of improved cross-roads.

Page 301 Boats with coal and lime can come up the Earn to a bridge two miles east of the village of Forgan.
Page 305 Fuel.—In summer furze, broom etc are used; in winter coal from Fife is used.
Page 307 Roads and Bridges.—Many of the public roads, even in the hills, and the bridges are very good; as are the private roads leading to gentlemen's houses. The public roads are statute labour which is partly commuted.
Page 308 Public Houses.—Five.

Map of Forgandenny parish
Forgandenny. Based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923

Antiquities.—He refers to remains of a fortification (Jackschairs Wood NO01NE 20 0720 1680 - the Canmore entry identifies it as a hillfort) on the western boundary of the parish, SW of the village, that some think is Roman. It is sited close to a pass over the Ochils through the valley of the May. Other remains at Ardargie have long been thought to be Roman (NO01SE 2 0827 1437 - the Canmore entry says it is a moated site and not Roman).

NSA, 948
Page 952 There is a small Roman camp on the estate of Ardargie that has been protected by the proprietors and hence is in excellent preservation. It has a fine view to the west and of the Roman road that ran to Ardoch.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Forgandenny 1727

Volume 1, Page 125 In Forgandenny parish highways run east-west and north-south (Perth to Kinross).

Page 119 The May reaches the Earn just east of a bridge built about 30 years ago near to where there had been a ferry-boat. When in flood it makes it difficult to reach the church from certain parts of the parish.

Page 124 Mention by Wyntoun (c.1350 – c.1423) of the Coblehaugh, where there was a ferry over the Earn.

NSA, 1172
Page 1173 The Halyhill was a residence of both Pictish and Scottish kings. Edward Baliol camped at Miller’s Acre near here in 1332, prior to the battle of Duplin. He crossed the Earn at a nearby ford.

Name, Situation, Soil, etc The name in Gaelic Feart-na-gal, the works or exploits of strangers, may refer to the Roman camp here.

From the west point of Fortingall a road leads to Glenlyon. From the east a road leads to Rannoch a district which begins near Tumble Bridge.
Page 452 Attempts to win lead in Glenlyon about 60 years ago were given up, perhaps because there were no roads at that time and everything had to be carried on horseback.

Page 456 "The Roman camp, already mentioned, is certainly the farthest inland one, of any that has been hitherto observed. The ditch and rampart are filled up, or broken down, in many places, by the plough. The Pretorium is quite complete: The area within is about 80 acres." (Note: The Canmore record identifies it as a medieval moated site - NN74NW 1 7340 4665).

Page 457 Mention of bridge of Cainachan and of the King's Ford (Robert the Bruce) over the Tumble (Tummel).

Page 458 "In the year 1754, the country was almost impassable. There were no roads, nor bridges. Now, by the statute-labour, we have got excellent roads, and 12 bridges. In a few years, we shall have other two, which is all that could be desired, the people contribute chearfully and liberally to build them, and this preserves many lives."

Map of Fortingall NSA, 527
Page 532 Fortingal.—The valley here is about 6 miles long and half a mile broad with three points of acces: to Loch Tay on the south where there is a turnpike road; to the north-west through the pass of Glenlyon; and to the east where the Crieff and Inverness turnpike is met at Coshiville, Appin of Menzies. All the roads are statute labour except for the detached part of the parish called Bolfracks.

Page 550 Antiquities and Curiosities.—Apart from the celebrated yew tree there was a Roman camp, which he describes (see note under OSA).

Page 554 Parochial Economy. Market-Town—The nearest are Crieff and Perth.
Means of Communication.—The means of communication are poor. Several carriers go to Perth and a runner goes three times-a-week from Aberfeldy to the top of Glenlyon, passing through here. A penny-post subordinate to Pitlochry has been set up at Kinloch-Rannoch.
Bridges and fences are generally good. Those along with the roads in the property of Slismine are worthy of note. A fine bridge was erected last summer over the Gamhaire, at the west end of Loch Rannoch. It was carried away by floods but is currently being rebuilt.
Fairs.—Seven, for livestock, seeds, hiring etc. The venues are Kirkton of Fortingall, Kinloch-Rannoch, and Inverwick in Glenlyon.
Inns.—Four inns, and 6 other establishments in remote areas used by travellers and by locals on rent days, weddings etc.
Fuel.—Mostly peat but they are scarce and often have to be brought from the mountains. Some wood and turf is also used, and coal from Crieff or Perth by those able to afford it.
Miscellaneous Observations
At the time of the last Account, the practice of moving for the summer to shealings, sometimes 20 miles away, was prevalent.
Note: There are mentions in passing of the western military road and the military road.

Fossoway and Tulliebole
Page 457 Two major markets for black cattle are held at Crook of Dovan, and there is a small market at Blairingone. There are public houses in both villages - both are on the high road. The Duke of Athol has coal works at Blairingone.

Page 473 Kings of Scotland sometimes came from Stirling to Falkland Palace by Tulliebole. On one occasion (so the story goes) a drinking contest between a trooper in the royal retinue and one of the laird of Tulliebole's vassels led to the death of the trooper - the road leading past the spot where he died (the Trooper's Dub, see east side of 6" map Fife, sheet 21 on road to Kinross) is still known as the Court Gate, or Court Way.
Note: there is another "Trooper's Dub on the same sheet just north of Carnbo but the former seems the more likely location as it is so near to Tullibole castle and by the side of an old road to Kinross - "dub" itself is a pool or puddle. The same map shows a path named the "Butter Road" which ran from approx. one mile north of Carnbo for a couple of miles to join the road leading to Path of Condie and Pathstruie. One explanation for this odd name is given on the Heritage Paths site which records a tradition that monks from Culross used it to carry butter to Scone palace; other possibilities are that it was a path used to reach sheilings where butter would be made (cf. the item on the "Butter Bridge" in Glen Kinglass on the SABRE website); or that it comes from the old Scots word for "outer" - see DSL.

Page 476 Natural Curiosities. The Rumbling Bridge. He describes this bridge (the lower bridge in the photo) which has a span of 22 feet over a narrow gorge, and is 86 feet above the bottom of the gorge. It is 11 feet wide.

Map of Fossoway and Tullibole
Fossoway and Tullibole. Based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923.

Page 480 Bridges.—"The bridges on the Dovan, connected with Fossaway, are 5. The Vicars bridge, leading from the north, to the coal at Blairingone, said to be built by a Vicar, who once lived at Dollar, but in what year, is uncertain. It was widened 6 feet, about 30 years ago. Higher up the river stands the Rumbling bridge, built about the year 1723. The next is the bridge at the present church of Fossaway, on the high road from Stirling to Kinross. It was built in the year 1767. At a considerable distance farther up the river, stand other two bridges, distant from each other, about an English mile. The first, is called Old Fossoway bridge, because it is built near where Old Fossaway church stood. The other is called St Serfs bridge (now under Castlehill reservoir), and it forms a communication between the parish of Dunning, and the coal at Blairingone. Both these bridges were built as they presently stand, within the last 60 years."

Rumbling Bridge
Rumbling Bridge
NSA, 1016
Page 1017 “At the bottom of Easter Downhill the bridge of St Serf, on what was the road to Perth by Dunning, till the present turnpike road was formed, less than thirty years ago, is still standing, though now much out of repair.
Page 1018 Cascades.—The original Rumbling Bridge is still there but a new bridge on the turnpike road stands above it.

Page 1021 Parochial Economy.
—Kinross and Dollar.
Means of Communication.—
The turnpike road from Dunfermline to Crieff intersects the parish from south to north, and that from Kinross to Alloa from east to west, passing near the parish church. Parallel with the latter, and about two miles to the north, another turnpike passes through the parish, being the road from Stirling to the eastern district of Fife. The turnpike road to Dunning also passes through a part of the parish. At one time a public coach from Perth to Glasgow, and another from Crieff to Edinburgh, travelled through the parish. But for some years, there has been no public conveyance to be had nearer than Kinross, Dunfermline, or Alloa.” No post office.

Bridges.—“There are six bridges on the Devon connected with this parish. Of these four belong to turnpike roads, and two to county roads.
Page 1023 Fairs.—Two small fairs.
Inns, Etc.—Of the fourteen inns here, three would be enough for travellers.
Fuel.— Mostly coal from the parish itself.

Fowlis Wester
Page 596 The village is bound to suffer since it is by-passed by the new road.
Mention of the bridge of Buchanty over the Almond.
Page 597 Although much peat is used, some farmers in the south of the parish travel 20 miles to Blairingone to buy coal where it is cheaper than at Perth, despite the easier journey to that town.

Line of the old road in Fowlis Wester parish
Old road shown in red. Based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923

Looking along the line of the old road as it passes through Fowlis Wester

Page 607 Highway.—"The greatest improvement lately made in the parish, is the construction of the new line of road leading through it from Perth to Crieff, which is every where at least 35 feet broad, and has in no part a greater rise than of one foot in 50. Whereas, the old line, which led close by the church, and over the brae of Foulis, frequently rose at the rate of more than one in ten feet. The making of this new road, from Methven to Gowan hill, in this parish, cost 260L each mile, and from that point westward, 239L.; besides bridges, the largest of which is not yet founded; and the smaller ones have been executed at 1L each foot in width: besides also the filling up of dens or ravines, the largest of which alone cost 130L. Where the bottom is best, or materials nearest, it may be kept in repair at 2L a mile; but the greatest part of it is to be upheld three years, at 4L a mile annually. The expence of making has been so great, and the resort of travellers hitherto so small, that the duties collected at the toll-bar, first erected in 1793, though somewhat higher than in other counties of Scotland, are not sufficient to pay the interests of the sums expended."
Page 609 Market for black cattle.

NSA, 249
Page 259 Parochial Economy. There used to be markets and fairs at Lacock, near Fowlis. Crieff is now the nearest market town.
Villages.—The turnpike road between Perth and Crieff passes through the village of Gilmorton where is an inn. The mail coach travels on the road.
Fairs.—St Methvanmas market is held at Fowlis annually, on the 6th of November, and is a useful market for the sale of black cattle, and hiring servants. This was anciently the festival of the parish, and the anniversary of the saint to whom the church was dedicated at its consecration, when the people constructed pavilions and booths to indulge in hospitality and mirth, which also became a commercial mart, and assumed the name offeria or holyday. Many of our most ancient fairs have a similar origin.
Miscellaneous Observations. The roads are greatly improved.

Page 481 Coal and peat used as fuel.
Antiquities.—"A Roman causeway runs through the middle of the parish, on the highest ground; it is 20 feet broad, composed of rough stones, closely laid together, and points westward to a camp, still distinguishable, in the parish of Muthil, and eastward to another, also visible, in the parish of Scone. This causeway is in entire preservation, as the proprietor of the adjacent grounds, though he inclosed the fields on each side with stone-dikes, did not suffer a stone to be taken from the road. Along the causeway are stations capable of containing 12 or 20 men; they are inclosed by ditches, yet very distinct and seem to have been designed for the accommodation of the overseers of the work. Within Gask's policy, in this parish, vestiges of two Roman camps, one on the south, and the other on the north of the causeway, are still visible; and the ditches, with the Praetorium, are distinct, though the ground is planted with fir. One of these camps seems to have been capable of containing 500 men, and the other half that number."

Looking north from Gask ridge
Looking north from the Gask ridge

NSA, 281
Page 282 Antiquities.—“The Roman causeway, which extends through the parish, on the highest ground, is 20 feet broad, composed of rough stones, closely laid together. It points west to a Roman camp still distinguishable in the parish of Muthil, near the Chapel of Ease, at Ardoch, and east to another camp in the parish of Scone. By the side of this causeway, Roman stations are still visible, capable of containing from twelve to twenty men. They are enclosed by ditches, which are very distinct. Within Gask's policy, vestiges of two camps may still be traced, one on the south side, the other north of the Roman road or street, as it is called by the inhabitants.
Page 283 Parochial Economy. Markets.—Dunning, Methven, Auchterarder and Perth markets are visited. The turnpike roads are good but not the parish roads.
Page 285 Inns, Etc.—None.
Fuel.—Peat, coal, and wood.

Page 233 Miscellaneous Observations. Grain has to be brought in from Strathern and coal comes from Blairngone, 5 miles away, and peat from the hills.
The road between Strathern and Blairngone, has been improved and there are proposals for further improvements which will make travel between these places very easy.

NSA, 333
Page 334 Parochial Economy.
Since my former Account a toll-road has been made through the Glen: It passes through the parish for three miles and a half. It was executed at great expense: the forming, metalling, cutting earth and rock, building bridges, and conduits, damages, &c cost L 5257, 16s.; but the advantages obtained have been very considerable. The farmers who formerly took from 7 to 8 cwt. seldom more, now take from 15 to 18 cwt.; and carters, who load heavily, take from 20 to 25 and sometimes 30 cwt. The villagers, who are supplied from Blairengone and Dollar, burn their coal about 5d. per cwt cheaper than before the road was made, estimating summer and winter together; and a much greater quantity of lime is now driven by the farmers.”

He remarks on the tradition that the Tay is supposed to have ran under the slopes of the Sidlaws and notes that it “joined the river Earn at a place called Invergowrie, about 2 miles W. from Dundee. Several towns, situated upon the higher grounds between these rivers, are hence called Inch this and Inch that, Inchmartine, Inchmichael, Megginch, Inchture, &c.
Page 192 A turnpike road between Perth and Dundee is currently being constructed and runs through the village of Inchture.
Page 194 Pier at Polgovie where much victual is shipped and coal and lime unloaded.

Map of Carse of Gowrie
Parishes in the Carse of Gowrie between Perth and Dundee (Errol, Inchture, Longforgan, St Madoes). Until the turnpike was made along with branches to the harbours on the Tay, travel was very difficult in the area. Based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923.

NSA, 825
Page 836 Parochial Economy.
Means of Communication.—Post offices here and at Errol and a branch on the turnpike. Three coaches, including the mail, pass through.
Inns and Alehouses.—Inn in the village, used by travellers, and an ale-house at Polgavie used by those with business at the harbour.
Fuel.—Coal and wood.



Page 459 Roads and Bridges.—Good roads run on both sides of Loch Tay between Kenmore and Killan. The one on the north was made many years ago, that other was made at the expence of the present Earl of Breadalbane. They are statute labour roads, which may soon be converted. There is an inn at each village and a bridge at Kenmore along with many smaller ones on each road.

Map of KenmoreNSA, 452
Page 466 Market established in Kenmore in 1565.
Page 468 Mention of Roman coins found in 1755 when a road was being made from Taymouth to Glenquaich.
Page 472 There are 10 small shops where many articles can be obtained, and 2 bakers from Aberfeldy travel round the parish selling bread.
Page 477 Parochial Economy. Although the nearest market-town is Crieff at 22 miles distance it lies over a high hill which makes the journey inconvenient. Although farther away, Dunkeld and Perth lie in the line of the valley and are more convenient to reach.

Means of Communication.—Post comes from Dunkeld and Killin. The post office here is subordinate to Aberfeldie.
He gives a long description of the roads, which can be seen on maps. Of these roads those to Dunkeld and Killin were turnpike; the military road ran north from here to Dalnacardoch. A bridge was needed at the fords of Lyon. He mentions the proposal for joining Loch Tay with Loch Lomond by canal and railway.
Page 485 Fairs.—Six.
Inns.—At Kenmore and Lawers.
Fuel.—Peat is the main fuel but much time and labour has to be expended to obtain it. Coal costs twice what it does in Perth due to the carriage.

Page 377 Inns, Ale houses, Etc.—There is an inn in Killin and in Tyndrum, a stage between Killin and Dalmaly in Glenorchay. Several other places also serve drink.


Roads and Bridges.
The whole area of Breadalbane has good roads and bridges. The military road between Stirling and Fort William passes through this parish and has recently been improved; it makes communication between the South and the west and north-west Highlands quite easy. The other roads are statute labour, exacted in kind.

Page 380 "A great number of beggars from the neighbouring counties infest the parish, particularly in the summer and harvest months, many of whom are neither needful nor deserving of charity."
Page 384 Miscellanous Observations. Fuel is scarce and markets are distant, although the good roads overcome the latter disadvantage to some extent.

NSA, 1066
Page 1091 Parochial Economy.
Market-Towns.—Crieff and Stirling.
Tyndrum today
Villages, Etc.
—Several shops in Killin. Daily post from the south, and three times a week from Kenmore and Aberfeldy.
Means of Communication.—Roads and bridges are in excellent order. A carrier goes to Stirling etc weekly and there is one to Glasgow via Dumbarton once a month and one to Crieff once a month. In summer there is a coach to Dunkeld and also to Lochlomond to meet the steamer.
Page 1094 Fairs.—There are several at Killin and one at Tyndrum.
Inns.—Five of the six excellent inns here have post-horses and carriages available.
Fuel.—Peat, wood, and coal are used but all are expensive.


Page 50 Roads and Bridges.— The Edinburgh to Fort William and the Glasgow to Perth roads intersect at Doune. They are in poor condition but may be made turnpike. Only these two roads are passable in bad weather.
There is a want of bridges and flooding causes problems when travelling. Besides the bridge in Callander, there is one in Doune over the Teith, now 266 years old and still standing despite many floods.
He continues: "This useful bridge was erected by Robert Spittal, tailor to King James V. about the year 1530, previous to which, there was only a ferry-boat; and tradition reports, that Mr Spittal coming this way, happened to leave his money behind; the churlish boatman refused to ferry him over; to resent which insult, the generous tailor immediately built the bridge, and so punished the boatman, by ruining his business."
Page 55 The town has one street which runs from the bridge of Ardoch to meet the roads from the bridge of Teith and Callander, forming a Y junction.
DounePage 73 Roads.—"The by-roads of the farmers, all over the parish, are in a wretched condition, and absolutely impassable through the one half of the year. The carts and harness are generally shattered and broke in a few journies; and hence the horses, carts, and harness, constantly wear the marks of poverty, and, instead of performing the work with vigour, both men and horses soon languish and decay."
Page 77 Grain is sold in Stirling, Kippen and Callander. A market has started in Doune since the Adelphi cotton-mills were opened.
Page 80 Markets, Price of Provisions, Etc.—There are 6 annual fairs, two of which are almost as large as the Falkirk trysts for black cattle.
Page 89 Post-office and Carriers.—We now have post-offices in Doune and Callendar, served by runner from Dunblane. There are carriers to Stirling, Callander, Dunblane and sometimes Kippen.
Page 92 Disadvantages.—Lack of coal and lime and the need for bridges. done
Proposed Improvements. New roads and bridges needed and old ones improved. Canals would be useful. done

NSA, 1224

Bridge of Teith - click for larger image
The inscription says This bridge was widened and repaired by the Road Trustees in 1866. Underneath is a transcription of the original wording of 1535 on the other side of the bridge which is now practically illegible

Page 1230 Bridge of Teith.—This was erected in 1535 by Robert Spittel who was tailor to Queen Margaret, wife of James IV. The story is told that the ferryman refused to take him across the river at which Spittel had the bridge built to spite the ferryman and put him out of business.
There is an inscription on the bridge “in the centre of which is a shield with a device resembling a spread eagle, and in the base a pair of large scissors formed en saltier :—" IN .GOD . IS . AL . MY . TRUST . QUOD . ----TTEL . THE . X . DA .OF . SEPTEMBER . IN . THE . ZEIR . OF . GOD . M.VCXXXV . ZEIRS . FUNDIT . WES THIS . BRIG . BE . ROBERT . SPITELL. TAILZER . TO .THE . MAIST . NOBLE . PRECES . MARGARET. ---NG . JAMES .THE. FEIRD. — OF . ALMIS."
When the tricentenary was celebrated in 1835, a facsimile was engraved and a translation made, viz: “In God is all my trust quoth Spittel the 10th day of September in the year of God one thousand five hundred thirty five years, founded was this bridge by Robert Spittel, tailor to the Most Noble Princess Margaret, Queen to James the Fourth.—Of almis.

He has some interesting remarks on the suspicion with which the bridge was regarded by the people even though they found it convenient enough for crossing the river. They seem to have contrasted it unfavourably with “the good old Bridge of Callender” which had 24 arches or “bows” but had disappeared from the time of the Reformation.

page 1240 Parochial Economy. Market-Town.—Stirling is the main market for grain.
Means of Communication.—Doune is a post-town and a mail gig from Stirling to Callendar passes through. There is also a stagecoach between these towns. For the last two years coaches have ran to the Edinburgh to Glasgow railway.
A suspension bridge was erected at Lanrick in 1842.
Page 1242 Fairs.—Six well-known fairs are held here for the usual purposes.
Inns, Etc.—Fourteen.
Fuel.—“The fuel used, besides wood, is peat and coal. The former is procured at the hill (Uamvar) and at Moss Flanders; the latter either at Bannockburn or near Alloa.”
Revised 1844

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Description of Six parishes in Perthshire 1724

Page 338 Bridge over the Teath near confluence with Ardoch Water.

The Perth to Dundee road passes through the south of the parish for three miles.
Page 208 Miscellaneous Observations.—"The roads are at present very bad and narrow. They have never been sufficiently made; but now worse than ever, as the new turnpike road, in a very different direction, engages the whole attention of the gentlemen. Till lately, the statute-labour was all exacted in kind, but now is generally commuted; no turnpikes as yet, though we expect enough of them soon."

NSA, 1162
Page 1166 Parochial Economy.
Market-Towns.—Perth and Dundee. Errol is the post-town. The turnpike from Perth to Dundee passes to the south of the parish.
Fuel.—Mostly coal, brought in by sea.

Kincardine in Monteith
Page 483 Mention of the road from Stirling to the fort of Innersnaid.
Page 485 Eight alehouses, seven of them in Thornhill.
Page 488 Roads, Bridges.— In the last 20 years, many of the roads have been remade and bridges built where needed by the statute labour and county funds for roads and bridges. The main bridge here is the bridge of Dript over the Forth on the Stirling road; it was built by subscription.
It may not be feasible to have a turnpike here for if lime was excepted from toll it would cost almost as much to collect the tolls as would be raised by them. It may be that if the statute labour is inadequate to maintain the roads, an assessment will have to be made.
The parish, particularly the carse part of it, has diffcult communication with the neighbourhood due to the mosses and many of the rivers having no fords or bridges.

Page 490 Alterations. In the last 30 years, 3 new bridges over the Forth have been built between those at Stirling and Aberfoyle, and 3 over Teith, other than the one at Down (Doune). The roads are better made and their lines improved. The rivulets have been bridged.

Page 491 It had been proposed to form a canal between the Forth and Clyde through this district. When the present line for the Forth and Clyde canal was chosen, studies were made on how the Forth could be made navigable as far as the bridge of Gartmore though not implemented as yet.
Page 499 Lime for manure is brought from Sauchrie, 5 or so miles away and from works on the Forth.Although it was long used as a manure this was never done to any great extent being carried on horseback up to about 20 years ago when the bridge at Dript was built, and carts could be used.
Page 505 Peat from the moss or coal from Bannockburn are used as fuel.

NSA, 1243
Page 1262 “The history of Sir William Wallace brings him, after having burned the Peel (a stronghold) of Gargunnock, across the Forth to this very point (Wallace‘s Trench near Blair-Drummond east Lodge), by a road which led across the moss of Kincardine to a ford in the Teith, where, in the ordinary state of the river, it is fordable.”

Page 1264 “There are no ancient roads in this parish, except the one found by the moss improvers, which is universally ascribed to the Romans (see Canmore record NS79NW 17). Seventy yards of it in length were discovered on the surface of the clay, at the bottom of the moss, after the peat, to the depth of eight feet, had been removed. It was formed of trees about twelve inches in diameter, having other trees of half this size crossing them, and brushwood covering the whole. This road crossed the moss of Kincardine northward from a narrow part of the Forth, towards the Roman road, passing between the moss and the river Teith. This last-mentioned road has been traced from a ford in the Teith, about four miles north-west of the Drip, in a south-east direction, by Torwood and Larbert, to Camelon, on the Roman wall. It is supposed to have been made by the Romans for checking the incursions of the Caledonians by the Pass of Leny, and also for opening a communication by Dunblane with the well known station at Ardoch. A part of this road, near the mansion-house of Ochtertyre, is still called Staniegates, from the stones of which it was formed, there having been no moss there to require a foundation of trees.
The stone coffins already mentioned were found on this line in Blair-Drummond Park. By pursuing this line along the Forth and Teith, the Romans had not only the advantage of the more open country, but also of having their right protected by these rivers.

Moss of KincardinePage 1269 He has a long description of the moss of Kincardine which covered 1800 acres and rested on a bed of clay thought to have been laid down when the sea covered the area. As the sea receded, conditions were right for the growth of oak, alder, birch and hazel and the remains of these trees can be found in the moss. Evidence suggests that they were cut down by the Romans for reasons of security and to enable roads to be made.

He gives an account of the draining of the Kincardine moss on the estate of Blair Drummond. There is a mention of a new line of turnpike road along the north side of the moss that proved to be very convenient to those settled on the reclaimed land.

Note: Archie McKerracher in Perthshire in History and Legend, John Donald Publishers, 1988 says that the B8075 which runs north from Gargunnock towards Doune was originally cut 12 feet down into the peat until it reached the carse clay, so that it had 12 foot high walls of peat on either side.

Page 1281 Parochial Economy.
Stirling and Doune are the market towns. There is a post office in Thornhill, served from Stirling.
Police.—Since the police were established problems caused by vagrants and others have disappeared.
Means of Communication.—He details the roads which can be seen on the map. Coaches run on the Stirling to Callendar road.
He gives details of a suspension bridge funded by Colonel Graham of Meiklewood in 1831. It replaces ferryboats and a “temporary peat bridge” (see Canmore record NS79NW 23) on a 10 mile stretch of the Forth between the Bridge of Drip and the Bridge of Frew. There is a pontage and the Colonel with some statute labour funding keeps up the road between the bridge and the main Stirling to Doune road. He also built another smaller bridge downriver from this.
Page 1285 Fairs.—There is one small cattle fair in Thornhill.
Inns, Etc.—Three in total.
Fuel.—Coal is brought from Greenyards and Bannockburn, 9 miles away. There are three tolls on the road.
Those living on the Moss use peat; the demand for it at Stirling and nearby villages has nearly doubled the price.
Miscellaneous Observations. Several miles of turnpike road and three new bridges have been made.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Description of Six parishes in Perthshire 1724

Page 339 Ferries on the Forth at Dripp, Badd, Killbeg and Frew which also has a ford. Half a mile above Frew is a stone bridge over the Goodie.

Page 331 Villages.—The main village here is Arntully, so similar to other old villages where the "roads and passages amongst the houses are inconceivably bad, especially in wet weather, ...and the dunghill placed at their door."

Page 333 "On the Tay, about a mile from the kirk, is Kinclaven ferry, which occupies three ferry boats, one for foot-passengers, one for horses, and another for carriages. At the ferry, is a good and commodious inn, on the Kinclaven side of the river.

NSA, 1129
page 1135 Parochial Economy. Markets.—Perth is the main market-town, although with the growth of Stanley many goods are now bought there. Much of the milk produced here can be sold in Stanley which is very convenient.

Map of Kinclaven parishMeans of Communication.—The three main roads form a triangle. The west side is the road from Perth to the boat of Capputh, the south east goes from this road to the boat of Kinclaven and the northern side from here over to the Perth - Capputh road. This is to be extended to the Dunkeld road near Murthly Castle and if it was extended by a branch over to Bankfoot in Auchtergaven, it would give access to Blairgowrie, Coupar-Angus and Strathmore by the boat of Kinclaven and to the district of Stormont by the boat of Capputh. The first road is a turnpike, the others statute labour.

Post-Town.—The east of the parish is served by runner from Perth via the Bridge of Isla; the west from Stanley which is a sub-office of Perth and Dunkeld.

Bridges.— “At Kinclaven Ferry (image), there is a passage boat, on the same construction as those used at Logierait (image) and Caputh (image). The length of the chain here is 136 yards, and that the boat, although loaded, may effect the passage in five minutes, even when the river is not more than one foot in depth,—such is the buoyancy imparted to the boat or flying bridge, by the mode and principle of its construction.”
Page 1140 Inns or Ale-houses—“...here are two inns or ale-houses; one near the Secession meeting-house, intended for the accommodation of the more remote attendants at that congregation; the other at the ferry boat, for the use of travellers in general; and which is also frequented by gentlemen from a distance, whom the excellent salmon angling in its immediate neighbourhood attracts to this part of the country, during the summer months.
Fuel.—Coal is available in Perth and Stanley. Firewood is often sold and some are allowed to dig peat from the moss of Craigleith.

Page 213 The old post road ran along the foot of Kinnoul hill.
Page 215 The Tay forms the southern boundary of the parish and is navigable as far as Perth.

Page 217 Roads.— A fine level turnpike road has recently been made between Perth and Dundee, and is shorter than the old road. The cost of the tolls is nearly met by the savings in the hire of a horse or chaise. The advantages of the road were agreed by all. Other roads are good and should improve with the statute work being now concentrated on them; it is sometimes commuted, sometimes applied in kind.
Page 227 Advantages.—The new turnpike from Perth to Dundee and the ease with which lime and coal can be landed and grain taken away on the river are great advantages.

Tay from Kinnoul Hill, c.1900. Detroit Publishing Company
The Valley of the Tay from Kinnoul Hill

NSA, 1205
Topography And Natural History. Name
.—This may be of Celtic origin from ceann, head, and fauns, an opening; thus the head of the opening. The opening in question may be that leading into the Carse of Gowrie.

Topographical Appearances, Etc.— The old post road ran close to the foot of Kinnoull hill.

Page 1220 Parochial Economy.
The nearest market-town is Perth.

Means of Communication
.—The nearest post-office is in Perth but there is a receiving house in the parish. The Perth to Dundee turnpike passes through and has three coaches on it each day, including the mail, as well as carriers. There are several cross-roads.
Two steam-boats run between Perth and Dundee in summer; one in winter. A boat at Inchyra ferries passengers to these vessels.
There are two piers here where coal and lime are landed and grain and potatoes taken on.
Page 1224 Inns.—One - it has no bad effects on the people.
Fuel.— Coal from England and the Firth of Forth is landed at piers in the area. Firewood is also used.

Page 238 Now that work has started on making roads to various landing places on the Tay, it will be so much easier to reach these places when it was impracticable to do this with loaded carts in winter in the past.

, 228
Page 230 Parochial Economy. Market-Towns.—There are some small markets in nearby villages but Perth and Dundee are the main towns for selling and buying goods and produce and easily reached by the main road between them. There is a port on the Tay about 4 miles away where grain can be shipped and coal and lime obtained. There is a post-office about 3 miles away.
Miscellaneous Observations Since the last Account the “higher and lower parts of the parish have been connected by means of a new road, over which carriages of all kinds may travel in any weather; whereas, formerly, there was nothing but a precipitous rut, dangerous even for horses. This road is now become a sort of thoroughfare between the Carse of Gowrie and Strathmore, and is of public advantage, as well as private benefit.

Page 546 Bridge-end, and Bridge of Perth.—The village is so called as it is at the east end of the bridge of Perth.
After the old bridge was carried away in 1621, the river was crossed by ferry which was inconvenient, expensive and often dangerous. Some thirty boats were used as it was such a busy thoroughfare.
In 1765 a subscription for a new bridge was opened, mainly through the initiative of the late Earl of Kinnoul and who contributed much of the L.11,298:17:6 that the subscription raised; the government granted L.4000 of this total.
The foundation stone was laid in 1766, an event attended by thousands of people. It was completed in 1771 at a final cost of L.26,446:12:3. The architect was Mr Smeaton and the builders were Messrs. Guyn, Morton, and Jamieson. The bridge has 10 arches and is 906 feet long, with 580 feet over the water. It is most useful not only for Perth but for connecting the north and south of Scotland.

The bridge has helped to raise Bridge-end from a paltry village with a few houses, mostly for the boatmen, to a neat and growing village in which a number of gentlemen reside, as well as manufacturers to take advantage of yarn and cloth being taken to market by the turnpike roads from the Carse of Gowrie, Coupar of Angus, and the Stormount that meet at Bridge-end. The writer quotes from the Earl of Kinnoul's charter for the baronies of Kinnoul and Pitcullen that entitle him to hold a weekly market and four fairs in the year, as well as build harbours and storehouses and operate passage cobles and boats.
Page 550 In a list of occupations there were 16 inn-keepers, 6 carters, and 3 boatmen.
Page 561 Roads.—The turnpikes from Dundee, Cupar of Angus, and Kinclaven and Scone pass through here. These will allow lime and other manure and market produce to be easily and cheaply transported. However, their full benefit will only be achieved when the cross-roads are improved.
The parish and district benefits from being so near Perth and the Tay which is navigable to here. Coal from the Firth of Forth is used as fuel.

NSA, 933
Page 938 Bridge of Perth.—He refers to the bridge that connected Kinnoul with Perth noting that it was built in 1329 and suffered damage by floods in 1573, 1582, 1589 and 1621 when "it was hailly dung down, excepting only one bow thereof standing."
From that date (1621) until the opening of the new bridge in 1771, the river was crossed by ferryboats. The bridge has “10 arches, the clearwater way is 590 feet and the overall length 906 feet. There are plans to widen the bridge.”
There is gas lighting in Bridgend.

Page 514 Fairs.—One fair at Kirkmichael; two at spittal of Glenshee. Fifty years ago the Kirkmichael fair was an important and very busy cattle market but it has much declined. There is a weekly market in the village; and among those attending are shoemakers from Athole.
Fuel, &c.—Peat and turf are used as fuel. Although lime is used as a manure, the expense of peat for burning the limestone hinders it from being used more. There are 7 licensed retailers.
Roads.—"The military road from Coupar-Angus to Fort George, passes along the Black Water and through Glenshee. It is kept in repair chiefly by the statute labours of the country. A country road along the course of the Ardle is kept in pretty good repair, in the same manner."
Page 521 Disadvantages.—We are separated from neighbouring districts by hills; one very steep hill hinders travel to the market towns and the Stormonth which supplies us with meal and corn and other items. Travel can be difficult as for example when crossing the "rapid river that runs through Strathardle." There had been a bridge at the village but two arches fell about 40 years ago and we now have to cross over planks laid between the remaining pillars of this bridge.

NSA, 785
Page 788 The improvements to the parish have been helped by the building of good roads and of bridges. One was made last summer over the Ardle at Kirkmichael and cost L500, raised by subscription.
Mention of Bridge of Cally.

Page 55 "The village of Bridge of Allen is sited where two great military roads separate: one going by Callendar to the west, and one by Crieff to the north."
Page 56 Roads.— The main roads here are poor but if the one leading north is turnpiked this will allow more attention to be paid to the other main road, and the bye-roads. In winter the roads in the Carse are near impassable. Statute labour is in kind.
Page 58 Antiquities,—There may be a Roman post near the road to Ardoch. There is a chain of rude forts running along the north face of the Strath, or Valley of Monteith called Kiers. These were probably built by the Caledonians to observe movements of the Romans based on the Roman wall, started by Agricola and completed by Antoninus Pius. The kiers are well sited as there are few fords to the south and Moss Flanders would have been impassable.
Advantages and Disadvantages—The advantages are being near Stirling and being able to easily obtain coal and lime; however, the roads are bad.

NSA, 1160
Page 1161 Antiquities.—He mentions a possible Roman outpost in the east of the parish near to the Roman road to Ardoch and a chain of rude forts called Kiers that run along the north side of the Strath of Monteath.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Description of the Parish of Lecropt, Perth/Stirlingshire 1723
Page 310 The King’s highway divides after the Bridge of Allan, one branch leading from Dunblane to Strathearn and Perth, the other to Monteith and the west Highlands.

Lethendy and Kinloch

Mao of Lethendy parishOSA 17/521
He remarks that the Tay had moved two miles to the south, leaving traces of its former course.
Page 528 Roads.—"There are two roads which divide the parish nearly into four equal parts, one of which runs from east to west, and the other from south to north. Both of them have been long neglected, and are at present in a state of wretched repair. In winter, they are often totally impassable for carriages of any kind. There is also a branch of road, presently forming, leading along the south-west side of this parish to the new bridge of Isla, and to the turnpike road from thence to Perth......"
General Observations.— Coal has to be brought 12 miles from Perth and even peat is more expensive by the time it is dug, dried and brought home some distance.

, 1001
No particular mention of roads.

Little Dunkeld
OSA 6/354
Mention of inn at Amulrie on the military road from Stirling to Tay bridge (Wade's bridge at Aberfeldy)
Page 360 Mention of east ferry of Dunkeld.
Page 371 The church of Little Dunkeld stands “within 60 yards of the great highland road leading from Perth to Inverness by the ferry of Invar.”
Page 373 Roads and bridges.— The road from Amulrie to the west ferry of Dunkeld and its bridges were made by Government. It is in good condition, lately improved, but very steep and with a poor line. The great Highland road is a county road as far as the west Ferry, when it becomes a military road. There is a clear need for a bridge at Dunkeld, and for government assistance in building it.

Map of Little Dunkeld parishThere is a well-frequented county road from the ferry through the bishopric towards Taymouth (running on the west and then the south side of the Tay to Aberfeldy and Taymouth) which has good bridges but is in a very bad state. There are four bridges on the Bran, one being on a county road from Tay bridge (Aberfeldy) to Perth - this road is statute labour and has been poorly made as are most roads made in this manner where the people have nether the skill nor the inclination to make roads. Conversion to a monetary payment would be far preferable.
There is a very good inn at Invar and a recently built house at Balnagaird on the Taymouth road promises to be comfortable for travellers.

Page 375 South of the Tay, a mile below Murthly there are remains of fortifications that probably guarded a ford over the Tay.

Page 376 A bridge on the Bran just above Trochrie is thought to be one of the oldest in Perthshire.
Mention of the Rumbling Bridge.
Page 378 Lime has to be brought from Perth which is between 12 and 25 miles from different parts of the parish. Good marl lies at a similar distance though there is a great extent of it in Auchtergaven which could perhaps be exploited. There is plenty of peat but it takes up two months in the summer at the expense of carrying lime and marl.

NSA, 1005
Page 1005 Mention of the Rumbling Bridge.
Page 1008 The Bridge of Dunkeld was built in 1809.
Page 1012 Parochial Economy. Market-Town.—Dunkeld is the market town for the district - four fairs are held yearly.
Villages, Roads, Etc.—“There is a good turnpike road in each of the three districts of the parish; that in Strathbran is ten miles long; the one in the Bishoprick the same; and in the eastern division, about four miles, and all in excellent condition. There is a new bridge across the Bran, nearly half-way between Dunkeld and Amulree.
Fuel.—Mostly peat but it takes much time and effort to gather and is of inferior quality. Carriage makes coal too expensive for most.
Miscellaneous Observations.
Much improved roads.

Page 82 Roads and Bridges.— There is not enough traffic here to justify a turnpike - the income from tolls would be insufficient to repay loans.
The road north of the Tummel was made by the government and maintained by the statute labour with some occasional help from soldiers. The Strath-Tay road is a statute labour road; it is good in summer but some stretches are bad in winter. The bridges on this road were paid for by the county and by subscription. The statute labour has not been converted into a monetary payment which indicates how little money is available here.
Page 86 Mention of ferry of Tummel.

NSA, 685
Page 697 Parochial Economy.
Means of Communication.—There is a good turnpike road in Strathtay reached at Logierait by two ferries, one over the Tay, the other over the Tummel. The ferries “connect the Strathtay road with the great road to Inverness on the north, and with that to Breadalbane (from Dunkeld) on the south.” One of the ferries was of a novel design which he describes.
There is a swing-boat on another part of the river; but the near vicinity of a bridge lately erected has caused it to be, in a great measure, disused. There is a fourth regular ferry in the parish. There is a post daily, with the exception of Tuesday.
Page 701 Inns and Ale-houses.— Two inns and 7 ale-houses.
The Feillma-choit, (Sacred festival of St Machutus?) was once a very considerable market; and there is a small cattle-market at Pitnacree in spring.”
Fuel.—Wood, peat, and coal brought in from Perth.


Page 464 Details of quarry at Kingoody - stones are carried by water as far as Perth and Montrose, and by land for some 15 miles or so. They are also exported to England.
Page 472 Markets.—Three annual fairs, mostly for cattle.
Inns.—Two good inns, useful for travellers.
The turnpike road between Perth and Dundee passes through this parish.
Page 493 Fuel.—Coal from the Firth of Forth is landed at Dundee, the burn-mouth of Invergourie, or at Polgavie; some English coal is also used.
Page 502 Details of embanking on the Tay.
Map of Carse of Gowrie
Parishes in the Carse of Gowrie between Perth and Dundee (Errol, Inchture, Longforgan, St Madoes). Until the turnpike was made along with branches to the harbours on the Tay, travel was very difficult in the area. Based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923.
Page 551 Roads.— Prior to 1790 roads in the Carse of Gowrie were very bad and in this parish the whole statute labour could not maintain the 4 miles of post-road that passes through it. In 1790 a turnpike act for Perthshire included the road between Perth and Dundee with branches to the harbours of Polgavie, Errol, and Inchyre. The Carse proprietors, who are trustees, contributed L.13,000 to the work.
The statute labour is now applied solely to the bye-roads, which along with contributions from the proprietors, has led to great improvements in these roads. Where possible, farmers are allowed to apply their statute labour to roads most useful to them.
Great benefits have resulted from all this work.
In a footnote he says that before 1790 goods had to be carried on horse back and much of the Carse was inaccessible to carts for 6 months so that liming and manuring the land was near impossible. Now carts can be used to move quite heavy loads rapidly and cheaply anywhere in the district.

Page 555 He gives details of the tradition that the Tay had changed its course.
….it is said, that there are charters, one for Bambrich in Fife, now upon the south bank of the Tay, but which formerly was said to be bounded by the Earn or Ironside; and another, either for Flawcraig or Craigdilly, where, it is said, iron rings had been found fixed in the rocks, for fastening ships, and that in the charter there is the remarkable expression—Ubi olim naves ligabantur (where at one time ships used to tie up)."
Page 560 Reference to a new road being made about 12 years before to the parish of Rossie.
There is a Roman camp here called Cotter Mellie, undoubtedly a corruption of Quatuor Mille.

NSA, 405
Page 417 Parochial Economy.
Market-Town and Villages.—Dundee is the nearest.
There is a daily postal service although the post-office is at Inchture. The coast road to Aberdeen runs through the parish and has two branches, one to the Kingoody quarries and rejoining the turnpike nearer to Perth, the other passing over the Sidlaws to Coupar Angus. Three or four coaches, including the mail run on this road. There are sufficient small bridges for our needs.
There is a small harbour at Kingoody linked to the quarries and which is used for landing lime and for exporting grain and potatoes.
Page 421 Fairs.—Two have been held here since 1663 and one, known as the tryst, since 1807.
Inns, Etc.—Four as well as the toll-house at the boundary with Angus.
Fuel.—English coal is brought from Dundee or landed at Kingoody, in this parish, or at Powgavie, in the adjoining one of Inchture. Coal from the south coast of Fife is also used to some extent, along with fire-wood.
Miscellaneous Observations. Before 1790 the roads in the Carse were very bad and hindered the use of lime and manure. The situation greatly improved when the turnpike between Perth and Dundee was made and work was carried out on the statute labour roads.




OSA 19/563

Ruins of Inchaffray Abbey.

Page 566 Stones from Inchaffray Abbey used for making roads.
Page 568 Coal is brought 24 miles from Blairingone and from Perth which is 12 miles away though the coal is dearer.
Roads.—The parish roads are very bad, particularly in wet weather. However, the Pow is crossed by three stone bridges which is useful for those in the locality.
Antiquity.—As well as the ruins of Inchaffray Abbey, there is a section of the Roman road from Ardoch to Perth. It is in very good condition but may not remain so " if it can by any means be converted into a highway, or afford materials for making or repairing one."



NSA, 748
Page 749 On several occasions stones from Inchaffray Abbey have been used for making the roads.
Page 750 Parochial Economy. The parish roads are fairly good and there is now a turnpike road.
Craig of Maderty estate was made into a burgh of barony in 1626 with the right to set up fairs and markets.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Some Short Notes on the Parishes of Blackford, Ochterarder, Dunning etc in Perthshire 1725

Page 140 In Madderty parish there is a bridge over the Pow at Dolarie and boats for horses and men on the Earn.

Note: Details of Inchaffray abbey can be found in Charters, bulls and other documents relating to the abbey of Inchaffray, Scottish History Society, 1908. The map from this volume can be accessed from a Wikipedia article - this shows roads in the area in the middle ages.


Page 504 "In the neighbourhood of Meigle, there is a ferry-boat on the Isla, in the road from Dundee to Alyth. Several attempts have been made to raise L.800 for building a bridge at that ferry; but these have been hitherto frustrated by the societies who were peculiarly interested in their success."
Page 505 "Across the Dean is a narrow and badly constructed bridge, in the road from Cupar to Kirriemuir."
Page 509 There is no sign of a Roman road here. There is a camp at Cupar.
Page 511 Towns, &c —Meigle, "an antient, inconsiderable, meanly built, market-town", is sited where two turnpike roads meet. Apart from the weekly market there are two annual fairs.
Page 516 The main disadvantage hereabouts relates to fuel whether peat and turf or coal which has to be carried from Dundee at considerable expense.
Canal.—He gives details of a proposal for a canal between Perth and Forfar.

NSA, 232
Page 235 Vestiges of a camp at Caerdean.
Page 237 Parochial Economy. Markets—Dundee is the main market town followed by Cupar Angus. There are two annual fairs held here.
Means of Communication.— Post office. Six miles of turnpike road. The Edinburgh to Aberdeen coach passes through, as well as one from Blairgowrie, and one from Cupar Angus that runs to the rail-road in Newtyle.
A very old bridge over the Dean connects Meigle with Airly, in the county of Forfar. A well-built bridge has lately been erected by subscription over the Isla, connecting this parish with Alyth. Bridges over the burn of Meigle, and over-drains, are kept in good repair, as are the fences.
Page 238 Inns.—5
Fuel.—Mostly coal from Dundee.


Page 617 Markets, etc—There are two butchers here who supply the district and also send some meat to Perth.
Roads.—"As a great part of the parish consists of strong clay, our roads in winter have been wretchedly bad, the statute labour not being adequate to uphold them, in decent repair. But lately, an act of Parliament has been obtained for a turnpike road between Perth and Crieff the line of which passes through a great part of this parish; and; is conducted through an uneven country, with a skill which does much honour to the abilities of Mr Abercrombie, the engineer who directed it. It will be finished in the course of this season, (autumn 1793) and will contribute much to the improvement and accommodation of this country. The cross roads are also assuming a much better appearance, now that the statute labour is applied entirely to them."

NSA, 142
Page 154 Parochial Economy.
Roads, Etc.—The Perth to Glasgow road by way of Crieff (the north road) passes through Methven. Several county roads intersect it; these are funded by the statute labour conversion money. The royal mail and another coach run between Perth and Glasgow. There is a penny post-office here, served from Perth.
Page 161 Inns.—Ten.
Fuel.—Coal from the Forth and from Newcastle is brought in to Perth.
Miscellaneous Observations.
A bridge is being built over the Almond at Dalcrue, near Lynedoch.


Page 270 The main manure is lime brought from Fifeshire to Perth from where the farmers drive it home.
Page 274 Fuel.—Coal from Perth has replaced turf as the fuel.

Antiquities.—Possible Roman camp.
Miscellaneous Observations.—One small public house. A stone bridge was built over the Slochie by the kirk and another over Condrachie on the new highway made by Mr Graham. He has also made two other roads that meet this road.

NSA, 198
Page 201 “A spot, supposed to have been the site of a Roman camp, is still pointed out; but its genuineness is very doubtful. Like many other Roman camps, if its history were known, it would very likely turn out to have been a sheep-pen.
Page 207 Parochial Economy. Market-Towns, Etc.—Perth is the market and post town. There are penny post offices at Methven and Auchtergaven. A statute labour road runs from the Dunkeld turnpike to Logiealmond and Glenshee.
Page 210 Alehouses.— Several.
Fuel.—Peat and wood are used in Logiealmond, and coal from Perth in the eastern part of the parish.

Monivaird and Strowan
Page 575 Antiquities —Two Roman observation posts can be seen on Ochtertyre estate; one has a view of the camp at Dalginross, the other of the camp on the muir of Orchil.

Page 577 Advantages and Disadvantages. Coal has to be brought 10 miles in carts by a hilly road, although it is still cheaper than peat or wood. The proposed turnpike between Crieff and Blairingone which is our nearest supply of coal will help somewhat in alleviating this.
Manufactured goods could easily be taken from Crieff to Perth by the new turnpike road being made between them, or by a canal that could easily be made to within a mile of the Tay.

Map of MonivairdNSA, 723
Page 725 Mountain Ranges, Etc.—In a description of the parish he mentions “the northern branch of the Lochearn turnpike road that leads from Crieff, the Loch of Monivaird, by Comrie to Lochearnhead. On the south side of the Earn there is a branch leading to Comrie, and the Glenlichorn road from Comrie to Stirling."
Page 729 Greenstone from a quarry at Monzie is used for road metal.
Page 739 Antiquities.—“Several Roman antiquities have been found in these parishes, as might be expected from their vicinity to the stations of the Roman camps at Ardoch, Dalginross, and Strageath.
Page 744 Parochial Economy. Markets.—There are weekly markets at nearby Crieff and Comrie.
Means of Communication.—Turnpike roads run on both sides of the Earn between Crieff and Comrie. A runner carries the mail each day by the north road and there a few carriers each week. There are 5 or 6 bridges.
Page 746 Fairs.—There used to be three fairs in Monivaird and Strowan but they are now held in Crieff.
Fuel.—Peats come from the moss at Loch Turret. Coal has to come 25 miles from Bannockburn hence it is expensive. Fire wood is also used. 1838. Revised 1842.



Map of MonziePage 252 Bridges, Roads, Ale-houses, Mills, and Markets.—"Over the river Almond at Buchandy, there is a bridge of one arch, laid over another, and bearing date 1639. It was built by the Earl of Tullibardin when he had his summer residence in this place, the remains of which residence are still to be seen. The proper name of the bridge, however, is M'Bean's bridge, because of a chapel originally near it, called St M'Bean's chapel. On all the public roads there are good bridges. Those upon the county road built by the county, and the others by subscription.
The roads here were kept up formerly by the statute labour, which is generally very ill performed, and therefore it is now commuted. They pay from 8s. to 10s. each plough, and the pendiclers and cottagers pay 1s. 6d. a year. There are 7 licensed ale-houses in the parish.

Page 256 Antiquities.—The district abounds with Caledonian and Roman remains, including the Roman camp at Fendoch sited opposite the only route through the hills for 40 miles.
Page 259 Advantages and Disadvantages.— The nearest coal is 20 miles distant. Although lime can be had nearby, it is too expensive to burn it. Marl is very dear. However, the new roads built or planned will be of great benefit. One has now opened between Perth and Crieff, and is to be continued to Stirling.

Sma' Glen, c.1900. Detroit Publishing Company
The Sma' Glen
NSA, 262
Page 263 "Small Glen." A new road to the Highlands runs through here and has much the same line as the military road.

Clach-Ossian, or Ossian's Stone.—This is a large stone reputed to mark the grave of Ossian. When the military road was being formed the soldiers moved it to see if there was any treasure underneath and found that it was in fact a grave, though of whom is not known.

Page 266 Whirlwinds and Earthquakes.—The topography of the small glen is such that violent air currents can form. Travellers have been blown off their horses and have had to seek shelter until the storm passed over.

Page 270 “One glimpse more may be obtained into the condition of society at that period. Formerly there were extensive cattle markets held at Crieff, which have since been carried to Falkirk. These necessarily brought down from the north, crowds of Highlanders. They are described by people old enough to remember them, as barefooted and bareheaded, although many of them old men. Being numerous, they used to enter the houses of the country people, take unceremonious possession of their firesides and beds, carry off the potatoes from their fields or gardens, and sometimes even the blankets, which had afforded them a temporary covering for the night.

Page 271 Antiquities.— Mention of many Roman remains in the parish; among them camps at Ardoch, Comrie and Strageath as well as sections of military road.
Page 272 Camps.—Mention of what may be small Roman posts at "Knock Durroch" (the Oaken Knoll) near Monzie, and at Cultoquhey.
Fendoch Camp.— He describes the camp at Fendoch, situated just south of the Almond where it issues from the Small Glen. Since the last Account the site had been damaged by ploughing.
Page 278 Parochial Economy. Crieff has a weekly market and eight fairs each year.
Roads and Fences.— Eleven miles of fine turnpike road as well as statute labour roads.
Page 280 Fair.—The old St Lawrence’s fair lasted two days. One day of the fair is still held at Monzie; the other day is held at Crieff.
Alehouses.—”One in Monzie, and two in Gilmerton.
Fuel.—Coal is brought from Bannockburn or Dollar, both about 25 miles distant. Peat and wood are available locally.

Page 68 The roads are good and allow easy access to the low country and the market-towns of Dunkeld and Perth.
With peat becoming scarce and difficult and expensive to obtain and coal being so far distant the supply of fuel will soon become a problem.

Distilleries, Alehouses etc.—There are two distilleries and 24 licenced retailers of ale etc. He notes that at fairs "every house, hut, and shed in the respective villages, is converted into a dramshop."

Map of Moulin parishPage 71 Roads.— The Perth to Inverness road passes through; it is well maintained by the statute labour and occasional help from the military. The bye-roads are statute labour, mostly exacted in kind.There used to be a ferry over the Garry at the southern end of the pass of Killicrankie but when 18 people were drowned one day in 1767, it was replaced by a bridge built by subscription.

NSA, 637
Page 656 Ten four-wheeled carriages and 4 gigs.
Page 659 Parochial Economy.
MarketTown, Etc.
Dunkeld and Pitlochry.
Post-Office.—There is a post office in Pitlochry at which the mail coach between Perth and Inverness calls. It started in 1836. There is a runner to Rannock three times a week.
There are two coaches in summer and autumn between Perth and Blair Athol and there are many visitors to this area at such times though it is to be regretted that many travel on the Sabbath-day.

Pass of Killiecrankie,  c.1900. Detroit Publishing Company
The Pass of Killikrankie

Turnpike.—“The old military road was converted into a turnpike. There is a toll-bar about the middle of the pass of Killiecrankie. The present rent is L. 213. The length of the turnpike road in the parish is seven miles.

Parish Roads.— There are excellent statute labour roads between Pitlochry and Kirkmichael and on either side of the Tummel.

Bridges.—He remarks that the bridge built in 1832 over the Tummel, one mile west of Pitlochry would have been better situated at Portnacraig. He argues for the advantages of a turnpike between this district and Strathtay, starting at White-fall bridge and crossing the " Monadh-meadhonach” to Weem, Aberfeldy, and Taymouth.
In 1833 a bridge was built over the Garry near the confluence with the Girnaig.
Page 667 Fairs.—These are held at Moulin, Pitlochry and Amulrie.
Inns.—Seven ale-houses and seven distilleries though in general their effect on the people has not been bad.
Fuel.—The main fuel is peat though it is obtained only with much effort and there is now a great demand for it from the distilleries which may lead to shortages which will cause difficulties for many. Some coal is also used. If the Perth to Dunkeld railroad is built it will make it much easier to obtain fuel.
Miscellaneous Observations. Roads have improved and the “old military road” has been made a turnpike.

Muckart (see Fossoway for related information)
Page 308 Natural Curiosities.—"The Rumbling Bridge is built in a hollow over the river Dovan, between the parishes of Muckart and Fossaway. It consists of one arch of 22 feet in span and 12 in breadth. At this place there was originally a bridge of wood. The present stone one was built about the year 1713, by one William Gray, a native of the parish of Saline. It is over a narrow chasm that seems to have been worn through the rock by the river, about 86 feet deep."
Public Houses.—There are three, used by travellers and those driving coal from Blairngone and Dollar to Strathern.
Page 311 Roads and Bridges.—The Kinross to Stirling road and the Queen's Ferry to Strathern road by Blairngone pass through. Of bridges over the Dovan there are the Rumbling Bridge, one near the old manse of Fossaway, one on the Kinross to Stirling road, and another on the Strathern road above Blairngone. This road is to be turnpiked.

NSA, 301
Page 308 Parochial Economy. Market-Town.—Alloa is the market and post-town although there is a penny-post in Dollar which is nearer.
Means of Communication.—In the parish there is a stretch of turnpike road from Dollar towards Milnathort, and one from Rumbling Bridge up Glendovan. Coaches between Glasgow and Perth and Edinburgh and Crieff pass through regularly.
There are 4 bridges over the Devon: on the Yetts to Milnathort road, at Fossoway church, Rumbling Bridge on “the new road from the south, and the Vicar’s Bridge on the old county road from the south, about two miles east from Dollar.
Rumbling Bridge has an old arch underneath the new bridge - this was very narrow and had no parapet. The Vicar’s Bridge is so named after the Vicar of Dollar who was killed there at the time of the Reformation.
Page 310 Miscellaneous Observations. At the time of the last Report it was hard to access the parish. This has greatly changed since the new road from Stirling to Milnathort was made about 1810, and the Dunfermline to Crieff road was made in 1816. Traffic is very considerable - some 10,000 tons of coal, 4000 or 5000 carts of lime and many carriers and visitors to the falls pass through each year.

The village is on the military road to Inverness by Tay Bridge.
Page 489 "There are several county roads in the parish; but the most remarkable one is the great military road from Stirling by Crieff to Inverness which runs the whole length of the parish for 8 or 9 miles, crossing the Allan, the Knaick, the Machany, and the Ern, over each of which rivers there is a stone bridge."

Ramparts at ArdochPage 493 Antiquities.—Of the remains of two Roman camps in the parish, those of the one at Strageath near Innerpeffray are now indistinct; from its small size and lack of strong fortifications it may have been a temporary camp. By contrast those at Ardoch are well preserved and he gives a full description of the camp and two nearby camps that may have been used for cavalry and auxiliaries when Agricola was advancing to the decisive battle of Mons Graupius. There are also several "forts of observation" in the parish. He mentions in passing that one or more ditches on the west side may have been filled in when the (Hanoverian) military road from Stirling to the north was being made.

Map of Roman road north of Ardoch
The Roman road north of Ardoch heading towards the Gask Ridge. Older maps show the road crossing the Earn north-west of Innerpeffray but see A Possible Roman Road Cutting at Innerpeffray Library Perthshire. D.J.Woolliscroft, with contribution by B.Hoffmann for recent work at this location. See RCAHMS etc for up to date details of the many Roman remains in this area. Note the Hanoverian military road running directly to Muthill. For continuation of the Roman road northward see Trinity Gask and Cargill. Above map based on 1/2 inch OS map, 1913.

Page 496 "There is in the parish a Roman road or causeway, a great part of which is now covered over with heath, leading from Ardoch to a fort of observation, called Camp's Castle, situated on the top of the Muir of Orchil, the lines of which are still very distinct. There is also another fort of observation, larger, but not so entire as the one above mentioned, which is situated to the northward of the house of Orchil."
Eagle's Craig or Beacon Hill near Drummond Castle lies 2 miles from Strageath and can be seen from Camp's Castle and from the Roman road running from Strgeath eastwards to a signal station at the parks of Gask. This, and the depth of ashes on its top, suggests it had been used for signals.

Page 497 Miscellaneous Observations. "There is 1 coach; 6 four wheeled chaises, and 1 single horse chaise, in the parish."
"Good roads are now making to all the market towns."

NSA, 311
Page 315 There is need for a bridge over the Earn to allow people to attend church at Innerpeffray.
Page 321 Camps at Ardoch.—He gives a long account of the camps at Ardoch and refers to a small camp at Strageath close to the Earn and near Innerpefray that has been much reduced by the plough.

Page 328 Parochial Economy.
Market-Towns, etc.—Crieff which is on the public road to the south.
Ecclesiastical State.—Spottiswood says that the bridge of Knaik and Machant was built by Bishop Ochiltree (1440‘s).
Page 333 Public houses -20.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections

Page 131 In Muthill parish there is a bridge with four arches over the Earn. One of the arches was destroyed by the rebels in 1715 to stop the Duke of Argyle’s march to Perth.
There are passage boats at Dallpatrick and Enerpafry, and two bridges over the Mahany. The one at the mill of Steps has “stone pillars laid over with oak trees and covered above with gravel.” There is another bridge over the Knaijk near Ardoch on the road to Stirling.
The road from Stirling to Crieff runs through here as does one from Auchterarder to Comrie, Balwider and Innerlochie.
There is another road which goes from Muthill to Perth, “which is called the street way because it runs in a straight line for the most part, and is cassied with stone, this way is said to have once run betwixt Perth and Sterling which is about 24 miles, and is said to be done either by the Picts or the Romans.”


18/489 He details the various arguments that Perth was founded by the Romans. There are the remains of a bridge over the Tay just north of the Almond.
Page 498 "Sir Robert Sibbald, who had carefully traced the Roman roads or military streets in this part of the country, describes 4 which led to Perth.
One from Aberdour and Newbigging, through the town of Kinross to Perth. A second, from the North Ferry, through the town of Kinross to Perth. A third, from the bridge of Stirling, through the town of Dumblane, and the Roman camp at Ardoch, to Perth. A fourth, from Abernethy to Perth.
At present, there are turnpike roads from all quarters; which, together with the conveniency of the bridge, attract a multitude of travellers
Considerable details of the early history of Perth are given.

Page 508 A charter of around 1200 refers to a road between Tibbermore and Perth.
Page 511 A great deal of trade was carried on in the middle ages with the continent. Details of the current extensive manufacture and trade are also given.
Page 523 "There are no hackney coaches in Perth, but many postchaises, which are often used as such coaches are in the larger towns. There are some persons who keep carriages of their own; and still a greater number who keep men-servants in livery, as being suitable to the stile of living which they are able to support."
Page 530 "The late Earl of Kinnoul exerted himself in obtaining a new bridge to be erected over the Tay, in 1766. Besides what was given by individuals, and by different societies in the town, L.2000 was given from the public revenue."

NSA, 1

Perth with its bridge, c.1900. Detroit Publishing Company Page 27 In discussing the origins of Perth he notes the OSA reference to the four Roman roads.

Page 41 In 1607 the town requested financial help from James VI towards building the bridge - he allowed an exemption from taxes.

Page 44 When the king visited Perth in 1617 extensive preparations were made to ensure that all went well. These included work on the bridge of Earn which was the town's chartered property and over which the king would cross. A Henry Bannewis was appointed "to tak cair upon the bigging of the calsayeis of the Brig of Erne, and brig thairof, and to take triel with the cosches of his Majesty, that they discretlie be careit langlandis the brig, bot hurt to the samen, and to the cosches, and the councill to consider his panes, and the said brig to be ledget with timmer and new daillit."
Another royal visit made by Charles II in 1633 led to repair work being done on the bridge of Earn.

Page 47 Inundations. In 1210 a major flood swept away the bridge. In 1621 the kirk-session records state that "It is to be noted and put in register in this book, the great and miraculous deliverance that the Lord gave to this burgh of Perth of an fearful inundation of water compassing the same in all parts, so that therethrough the Brig of Tay was hailly dung doun, except only one bow thereof standing. None could get furth of it, nor yet cum within it to make any relief thereto."

Page 48 Citadel on South Inch. In building this citadel in 1652 (by Cromwell) which caused great hardship to many people who were turned out of their houses, some of its materials were obtained by using the stone pillars and abutments of the bridge.

Page 71 Vestiges of a Roman road from Ardoch by Methven to the Tay about a quarter of a mile above Perth.
Page 82 Mention in city records of 1696 of passage boats.
Page 94 Details of manufactures and their export, also of shipping.

Custom House on Perth Bridge Click for larger image
The Customs House at Bridgend where customs for Perth were collected Notice for drivers of locomotives crossing the bridge - click for larger image

Page 95 Parochial Economy. Market-Town.—"Perth is a market-town, and the only one in the parish. Its population, as I have already stated, was, at the last census 1831, 20,016."
He gives many details of its extensive trading history.

Page 97 Means of Communication.—Perth is a post-town receiving mail from all the main towns. Roads run to Edinburgh, Glasgow (one by Crieff and another by Auchterarder), Dunkeld, Inverness etc, and Aberdeen. These roads are made on Mr M’Adams system much to the comfort of travellers. Coaches run on all the roads.

The Bridge of Perth was completed in 1771. It has nine arches, is 880 feet long and 22 feet wide including pavement.

He gives substantial details of the earlier bridge, referring to an account of the origins of Perth called the Muses Threnodie by a Henry Adamson written between 1570 and 1636. This has an unsubstantiated reference to Agricola constructing a wooden bridge at Perth as well as notices of damage to the bridge on three separate occasions viz. 1573, 1582, and 1589. The bridge itself was built in the 1300’s on “an order from King Robert Bruce, 1329, to the abbot and monks of the abbey of Scone, to allow the magistrates of Perth liberty to take stones out of the quarries of Kincarrathie or Balcormac, for building the Bridge of Tay, the Bridge of Earn, and the church.”
Other records show the bridge was in a bad way in 1566 - “the brig haiffing twyst fallin doun and decayit, and laitlie being erectit of tymmer, is readdy to fall without present help”. It was finally completed in 1617 but was swept away four years later. Numerous attempts were made after this time to rebuild it; the new bridge being completed in 1771 just upriver from the old one.

There are no canals or rail-roads in the parish. Between Perth and Dundee there is one passage steam-boat, and sometimes two, which ply daily. The river not being deep enough in several places to admit of their passing at all hours, their arrivals and departures are regulated by the flowing of the tide.” An iron steamboat is being constructed, 112 feet long, and capable of carrying 500 passengers. With the removal of fords and the deepening of the river this should remove the dependency on the tides.

Friarton Bridge, Perth, opened 1978
Friarton Bridge, opened in 1978

Although a railroad between Perth and Dundee is planned, agreement with those whose lands it will pass through has still to be reached.

Harbours.—Considerable details of the navigation of the river and of the harbour are given. In the 18th century there was much trade with both British and continental ports but this had declined somewhat partly due to other towns not being disadvantaged by being on a river and partly because the removal of obstructions had been neglected. In this respect there is mention of the weel-ford in Perth and some others towards Newburgh, and that work on deepening the river was carried out from 1834 onwards.

Page 104 Ecclesiastical State.—Robert Bruce addressed a letter to the abbot and convent of Scone, who had some quarries in the neighbourhood, in order to obtain stones needed for the church of Perth and the bridges of Perth and Earn. "Robert, by the grace of God King of Scots, to our beloved and faithful religious men, the abbot and convent of Scone, greeting: We request, and that very earnestly, that you will grant liberty to take hewed stones from Kincarrachie and Balcormac, for the edification of the church of Perth and of the Bridges of Perth and Earn, providing always that this liberty shall not be of any prejudice or damage to you. Given at Glasgow, the 4th day of July, in the forty-third year of our reign (1329)." (Liber Ecclesie de Scon, charter 143, page 103)

Page 138 Fairs. Two weekly markets and 6 major fairs held throughout the year.
Inns and Alehouses. There are 249 of these and 74 grocers shops where drink can be had. He remarks on the problems caused by drink and the need for more rigorous licensing.
Fuel. Coal is brought in by sea from Newcastle and the coast of Fife.

Miscellanous Observations.
Page 141
He describes various streets in the town and roads leading to other places - many of these can be seen on town plans (NLS). One point of interest was that “the river was crossed by means of boats and barges, which plied between the Quay at the foot of the High Street, and that on the opposite shore—called the Gibraltar.

Port of Monteith
Peat is available from the moss but at much trouble and expence.
Much oat meal is sent to Glasgow, Dumbarton and the Highlands. Butter and cheese are sent to the markets in the towns.

NSA, 1095
Topography And Natural History.
Name, Etc—The name of the parish refers to the ferry used to reach the Priory of Inchmahone and the seat of the Earls of Menteith.

Lake of MenteithPage 1097 When frozen, the lake can sometimes bear loaded carts.
Page 1098 There is a tradition recorded by someone writing about the parish 100 years before that the sea used to reach to the hill of Gartmore where at that time there was “a stone with a hole in it and in which there was an iron ring for tying boats to; "which stone," he says, "is to this day called clach-nanloang, or the 'ship or boat-stone.'"
Page 1102 He discusses the possibility that Bede’s Guidie, a Pictish town, was situated beside the Guidie which is the outflow for the lake of Inchmahone and which before drainage formed a lake which is mentioned in old writs. This would accord with the tradition above and with Bede’s statement that the Forth and Clyde almost met each other.
Page 1103 Inchmahone may have been a seat of the Culdees, who were later displaced by Augustinian monks.
Page 1109 Five public-houses in the parish.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Description of Six parishes in Perthshire 1724
Port (of Menteith)
Page 341 Ford and ferry at Gartartan.
There is a tradition that Moss Flanders was once under water - in proof of this there is a stone with a hole in it where there was an iron ring to which boats could be attached. It is called Clachnan Loang or the ship or boat stone and is sited at the hill of Gartmore.

Page 150 Coal is brought in from Perth and Dundee, the long carriage adding to the cost.

BlairgowrieNSA, 239
Page 246 Parochial Economy. Most domestic articles can be found in Old and New Rattray villages and Blairgowrie has many shops. Cupar-Angus is also fairly near and is reached by turnpike road from Blairgowrie. From Cupar-Angus there are turnpikes to Perth and Dundee; the Defiance coach from Edinburgh to Aberdeen passes through the town.
There is now a railway from Dundee to Newtyle which brings in coal, lime and manure and takes away grain and potatoes. Passengers find the train cheap and convenient. It is hoped to extend it to Cupar-Angus.
Page 248 Fairs.—Two fairs, mostly for cattle. More than 6 alehouses.
Fuel.—Coal is brought from Perth or the railway at Newtyle. There are also peats available in mosses, three or four miles away, and some wood.
Miscellaneous Observations. There is an interesting iron bridge erected by Colonel Chalmers of Glenericht. It has stone pillars at either end and a single span. It gives access to the great road from Perth to Braemar.

Page 525 Details of the Battle of Luncarty.
Page 527 The causeway from Ardoch continues through here having crossed the Tay at a camp sited at the confluence of the Tay and Almond.

"The foundation of a wooden bridge thrown over the Tay at this place still remains, it consists of large oak planks, from six to eight inches in diameter, fastened together by long skairs, but coarsely jointed, and surrounded with clasps of iron, frequently twisted. It would seem, that screwbolts, and fine made joints, were then unknown. I caused one of them to be raised some years ago, at the request of the late Dr Hope, who assured me that the fabric of the wood was not in the least decayed. At the other end, beyond this bridge, to the North East, there are some remains of the continuation of the causeway, almost as far as Blairgowrie, beyond which there are no traces of this famous military road to be discovered."
He adduces some evidence that Mons Graupius had been fought in the area.

He gives details of the tradition (mentioned by Hector Boece) that Bertha, sited by the Almond which had its former course half a mile to the south of its present position, was carried away by a flood in 1210 and that William the Lion rebuilt it at Perth a couple of years later. However he adduces evidence that this was very unlikely including the fact that excavations had revealed paved streets in Perth from three to ten feet deep indicating the age of Perth. William's charter was also a nova damus or renewal of a previous charter.

Page 536 Advantages. "In place of travelling in carts, and being jaded on hacks, many of the manufacturers have their own horses for riding, arid give an airing to their wives and children, in genteel carriges." There are now 16 chaises available for hire when 30 years ago there were only 3 or 4.
Page 540 In this parish we have the Perth to Dunkeld turnpike, the road from Dunkeld to Balgowan, Stirling etc, and the one from Perth to the West Highhlands that runs through Glenalmond.
"The only fuel made use of here is coal, which they either bring from Perth, or from the pits. If the last is the case, they set off with their carriages about midnight, and arrive at home the next evening in the twilight."
General Observations. Attendance at church would improve if the roads leading there were better kept and dry.

NSA, 162
Page 169 Civil History. Antiquities.—"According to Chalmers, the Roman station of Orrea was sited at the confluence of the Tay and Almond, in this parish. We can see that the Roman road from Ardoch that is clearly seen on the ridge of Gask runs to here and continues on the other side of the Tay. The remains of the piers of the bridge which crossed the river here can still be seen." The writer gives further information on Orrea and the movements of the Romans in the area, as well as some other fortifications.
page 173 Long description of Battle of Luncarty between the Danes and Kenneth III c.990
page 188 Details of the trade in bleaching of cloth - Luncarty was said to have had the most extensive linen cloth bleachfield in Scotland.
Page 191 Parochial Economy. Market-Town.—Perth.
Roads.—The Perth to Dunkeld turnpike passes through and has a branch past Stanley. The mail coach and a Dunkeld coach run on this turnpike. There are 4 statute labour roads.
Bridges.—With the Tay and the Almond in this parish, bridges are essential. However, to cross the Tay we have to take a ferry boat which carries 4 or 5 horses, 10 cattle or about 40 sheep. The Almond is so swift that a ferry would be dangerous hence there are three bridges. The middle bridge, the Bridge of Almond dates from 1619 and he gives an extract from the presbytery record of that time noting that many drowned in the river each year. Another of the bridges is on the Dunkeld road and was built in 1827. The third bridge, at Dalcruive, was funded largely by Lord Lynedoch and is a very fine structure along with its approaches. It was completed in 1837.
Page 196 Alehouses.—Eleven.

Rhynd (see also Dron and Abernethy parishes for additional information)

OSA 4/178
Page 182 Miscellaneous Observations.—Coal is brought in by river and is the main fuel. The Tay and Earn nearby make it easy for lime to be imported and grain exported. There are no turnpikes but the statute labour roads which are partly commuted, are generally good.
There are remains of a nummery at Orchardnook about a mile from Elcho Castle.
He gives details of a tradition that at one time the Tay ran farther north near the foot of the hills and that Rhynd and St Madoes had been the one parish.
Two alehouses on the public road and used by travellers.

NSA, 361
Page 365 He gives details of methods of land reclamation at Easter Rhynd and Balhepburn. A road was made out to a small island in the Tay and lined with reeds and osiers that retained mud left by the tide.
Page 366 No village or turnpike in the parish; the roads are statute labour and in good order.

MacFarlane Geographical Collections
Rind and Dron 1723

Page 126 There are three ferries in Rind parish: one for those on foot comes from Carie in Abernethy parish, two others which also take horses are from the heughhead in Abernethy parish and from the Carse of Gowrie - this one leads to the Bridge of Earn.

Page 127 Two roads pass through Dron parish. One runs south from Perth over the Bridge of Earn and goes to Kingorn (Kinghorn); the other runs from Abernethy over to the Stirling road. Where the first road runs through here it is known as the Peth of Drone - “yea it goes through the midel of the Paroch up the Peth of Drone which peth is a highway through that chain of hills which lyes along the south side of the river of Arne….”

St Madoes
OSA 3/568
Page 572 Fuel.—Mostly coal brought in by the river from Fife.
Page 574 Advantages and Disadvantages.—The main advantage is being so close to the Tay and having a harbour which allows coal and lime to be brought in, and agricultural produce to be exported to favourable markets. The roads however are bad in winter, though the recent forming of an excellent turnpike road from Perth to Dundee that passes through here is a major improvement.

Map of Carse of Gowrie
Parishes in the Carse of Gowrie between Perth and Dundee (Errol, Inchture, Longforgan, St Madoes). Until the turnpike was made along with branches to the harbours on the Tay, travel was very difficult in the area. Based on 1/4 inch OS map 1923.

NSA, 607
Page 633 Parochial Economy. Market-Town.—Perth.
Means of Communication.—Communications are good with the Perth-Dundee-Aberdeen and the Perth to Errol roads running through the parish as well as various other roads. There are regular coaches and carriers to Perth.
New Pier—Facilities were made about 7 years ago on reclaimed land opposite the point where the Earn joins the Tay. Potatoes are shipped to London and coal, lime, manure etc are landed.
Page 635 Inns and Ale-houses.—One, situated at the ferry and which is necessary for travellers.
Fuel.—Coal from Newcastle and the south coast of Fife is brought in by boat. Some wood is also used.
Miscellaneous Observations Better roads

St Martins and Cambusmichael


Church at St Martins. An early road between Perth and Coupar Angus passed the church and is shown on Adair's map of 1683.

OSA 13/500
Page 501
Fuel is scarce - coal is brought in from Perth.
Antiquities.—The remains of a Roman road can be seen running from Bertha past Berry hills, Dritchmuir, and Byres, towards Cargill (see Cargill for map).
Page 504 Roads.—The Perth to Coupar Angus turnpike passes through and one from Perth to Blairgowrie is planned. The people now see how useful turnpike roads are for trade and agriculture. Now that the statute labour is commuted the results on the cross roads are much better than when it was in kind.
Advantages and Disadvantages—Being close to Perth is the main advantage, and lacking fuel is the main disadvantage.

NSA, 873 No particular mention of roads.


Page 76 Exports.—Details of the exports and imports of the parish such as corn and cattle exported and coal imported.
Page 77 Fuel.—In summer furze, broom etc and in winter coal from Perth and Bridge-end, opposite Perth.
Page 79 Bridges and Roads.—The recent turnpike acts are expected to result in far better roads than the statute labour, whether in kind or commuted. Two turnpikes intersect the parish and are found very useful.
Page 81 Antiquities—"The Roman military road leading from the camp at Ardoch, to the bottom of the Grampians, enters this parish on the west, a little above a farm house on the Tay, and passes through, till it leaves it on the north-east quarter.
On the other side of the river, opposite to the place where the road enters the parish, stood the ancient town of Bertha, now a hamlet, bearing that name; and it is said, that there, in former times, there was a bridge over the river, and that several large beams of oak, yet to be seen under the water, formed a part of it.
Quarter of a mile upriver are faint traces of an encampment. The battle of Luncarty between the Danes and the Scots was fought in this area.

NSA, I043
Page 1064 He repeats the remarks about Bertha made in the OSA.
Page 1072 Parochial Economy. Perth is only 2 miles away. There is a sub-post office in the village. The Defiance coach runs on the Perth to Coupar-Angus turnpike road that passes through here.
Page 1075 Inns, Etc— Nine.
Fuel.—Sea coal can be bought at Perth and in the summer coal is brought in from Fife. Firewood is also used.

OSA 17/631
Page 649 One ale-house. The roads are bad but the statute labour work is improving them gradually. A new turnpike road that passes through part of the parish is proving very useful.

Tibbermore church Old Gallows Road
Tibbermore church The Old Gallows road to the south of Tibbermore church. The now uncertain line of the Roman road is also close by - see Trinity Gask below.

NSA, 1028
Page 1036 Means of Communication.—The Crieff turnpike passes through and continues as a good statute labour road thereafter. Another statute labour road runs on the north of the parish to the new bridge of Almond, with another road running north-south.
Page 1037 Ale-houses.—Six.
Fuel.—Coal from Newcastle and Fife is landed at Perth. Peat and brushwood is also used.

Trinity Gask

OSA 18/482
Page 486 Roads and Bridges.—Generally the roads are very bad and near impassable in bad weather. A bridge over the Earn near Kinkel has replaced a ferry that could sometimes be dangerous. This bridge and others were built by subscription so there is no pontage.

Map of Roman road on Gask Ridge
The section of Roman road running along the Gask Ridge. For up to date details of the many Roman remains in this area see The Roman Gask Project, RCAHMS etc. The road shown in purple is the Old Gallows Road, an early road from Perth that used the crossing at Innerpeffray. For full details of this road see A Possible Roman Road Cutting at Innerpeffray Library Perthshire. D.J.Woolliscroft, with contribution by B.Hoffmann. For continuation of the Roman road southwards see Muthill; for continuation northwards see Cargill. Above map based on 1/2 inch OS map, 1913.

Antiquities.—"The only piece of antiquity worth notice, is a part of the Roman road, or causeway, that runs from Stormont to the celebrated camp at Ardoch. This road, for more than Roman road on the Gask Ridgea mile, in a straight line, occupies the highest ground in the parish. It is very complete, and, with little or no repair, serves for a public road. The stones of which it is made are pretty large; and are laid in good order. It is commonly dry, even in the wettest season of the year. The road, however, of which it makes a part, is but little frequented."
Miscellaneous Observations.—Two public houses.
Half the summer is spent in bringing coal 20 miles on bad roads; peat likewise is only obtained with much waste of effort and time - time that could be better spent on improving the land.

NSA, 335
Page 338 “We have about four miles of the Roman road from the Stormont to the camp at Ardoch in this parish. Two of these are in a dreadful state of disrepair,—in winter indeed totally impassable. The other two…..have lately been very much improved, and in a short time will form part of an excellent road to Perth.”
Page 340 Parochial Economy. Auchterarder is the nearest market town to which the roads are exceedingly bad except in very dry weather. A boat across the Earn saves one mile. It is also the post town but deliveries of the mail are irregular.
Kinkell BridgeThere are country roads running east-west and north-south. The nearest public coach is the Perth to Glasgow coach and is 3 miles away at Dalreoch. Kinkell Bridge dates from 1793 and was built by subscription.
Page 343 Inns.—There is one at the toll-house at Kinkell bridge.
Fuel.—Coal is expensive as it has to be carted 20 miles or more from Tillicoultry and Dollar. Peat comes from Methven Moss, 7 miles away, and wood is also used.
Miscellaneous Observations.
The main road is now so good that much greater loads can be drawn on it.

OSA 11/546
Page 548 Details of former coal mining and salt panning in the parish.
Page 550 Village and Markets, Etc. Kincardine is a large village on the Forth with two weekly markets and a post office with regular deliveries from Edinburgh via Stirling and Queensferry. Mail coming from Queensferry continues to Fife, Perth and the North.

Kincardine Bridge

Roads, Ferry, and Harbour—The roads are very bad in winter and wet weather. The only materials for making them are free-stone and pan ashes which turn to powder very easily. There is a passage boat over to Higgin's Neuk but it is only within 2 hours of high tide that a horse can be taken and people on foot may have to wade through mud for 40 yards at low tide. A pier is contemplated which will be a great improvement.
Page 551 Details of shipping and trade.

Map of Higgins' Neuk ferry
Higgins' Neuk before the Kincardine Bridge was built. Based on 1/2 inch OS map 1913

NSA, 867
Coast, Ferry.
The situation of Kincardine is one of the best on the Forth for trade and shipping. There is water on the roadstead to the depth of 21 feet, where 100 vessels may ride in safety. The ferry across the river here is decidedly the best on the Forth. It is under excellent management. The ferry is three-quarters of a mile at high water, and only one quarter when the tide is out. Two steam-boats are attached to the ferry, which pass in about five minutes at all times of the tide and in all states of the weather. The piers at the ferry were built in 1826 and 1827 by Lord Keith's Trustees, at the cost of L.6468, 5s. 9d.

Street in KincardinePage 871 Town of Kincardine.—The streets are in a poor state, but may soon be improved.
Two inns and a post office.
A coach passes through each day for Glasgow and there are steamboats to Edinburgh and Stirling.



OSA 12/130
Page 131 Highways and Bridges.—"The great military road leading from Stirling to Inverness, passes through this parish, and is joined by several county roads at Tay bridge, which is about half a mile from the parish church. The military road is kept in repair by the Government, and the other roads by the statute labour."
Since these roads were made quite a few carts travel to Perth each week unlike the past when only pack horses were used.
There are good bridges over the Lyon and Lochay.

Page 141 Miscellaneous Observations.—One inn and 5 alehouses.
Peat is used as fuel but lies at a distance and is becoming scarce.
The scarcity of peat means that that lime cannot be burnt for manure, and too much time is spent in obtaining peat which could be more profitably used in improving the land. It is very injurious to the horses and carts used for gathering it.

NSA, 702
Page 712 Parochial Economy. Dunkeld is the nearest market town but most business is done in Perth.
Means of Communication.—Post-office in Aberfeldy; passengers can use the mail carriage.
There are turnpike roads and other roads here. Last summer two coaches ran between Dunkeld and Tarbet on Loch Lomond, and there are carriers.

Wade's Bridge at AberfeldyHe refers to the Bridge of Tay built by Wade in 1733 to allow communication with the Highlands.

There is a bridge over the Lochay near Killin; and there had been one over the Lyon, close to the old Castle of Comrie, which has fallen down some years since, and has not been rebuilt, though much needed.

Page 715 Fairs.—Weem has two fairs but these are hardly attended nowadays.
Inns.—Inns at Weem and the bridge of Lochay, and a small ale-house in Glenquaich.
Fuel.—Mostly peat - those who can afford it use coal from Perth though it is expensive.