contemporary account of the Earl of Hertford's second
expedition to Scotland, and of the Ravages committed
by the English Forces in September 1545, David Laing,
PSAS, Vol 1, (1851-54) pps 271-81
campaign had been ordered by Henry VIII who wanted to
unite the two kingdoms by forcing the Scots to accept
the marriage of his son Edward to the infant Princess
Mary. Leaving aside the destruction caused by the campaign,
the account is useful for its itinerary from which some
idea of routes in the Borders can be obtained.
on the "Roman" Roads of the One-inch Ordnance Map
of Scotland, The Ayrshire Road, James MacDonald,
PSAS, vol.27, (1892-1893), pp. 417-43
on the "Roman" Roads of the One-inch Ordnance Map
of Scotland, Preliminary Remarks, James MacDonald,
PSAS, vol.28, (1893-94), pp.20-57
on the "Roman" Roads of the One-inch Ordnance Map
of Scotland, The Dumfresshire Roads, James MacDonald,
PSAS, vol.28, (1893-94), pp.298-320
on the 'Roman Roads' of the One-Inch Ordnance Map
of Scotland, The Roxburghshire Roads, James MacDonald,
PSAS, Vol. 29, (1894-95), 317-28
papers call into question the work of early historians
and antiquarians that identified many camp sites and
roads as Roman. The papers were important at the time
because of MacDonald's standing as one of the foremost
archaeologists of the day. In an overview paper (Preliminary
Remarks) he argues that much of the earlier work on
the Romans in Scotland was speculative and faulty
and gives an interesting account of how this state
of affairs developed. In the three other papers he
selects road systems in Ayrshire, Dumfriesshire and
Roxburghshire, and attempts to show that although
they might be Roman the evidence for this was very
slight. Nowadays, a number of the roads he questioned
are accepted as Roman.
on the Antiquity of the Wheel Causeway, Haverfield,
F, PSAS, Vol. 34 (1899-1900), 129-30
short paper that lists references to the Wheel Causeway
showing that it was in use in the Middle Ages.
Roads and Fortifications in the Highlands with bridges
and milestones, Thomas Wallace, PSAS, Vol 45, (1910-1911),
account of the Military Roads built after the Rising
of 1715 to allow more effective control of the Highlands.
Prior to that time there were only rough tracks, if
any at all, that made access to many areas very difficult.
Details of all the new roads and bridges are given as
well as of the forts built at the same time.
Ancient Bridges in Scotland, and their relation to the
Roman and Mediaeval bridges in Europe, Harry R G Inglis,
PSAS, Vol 46 (1911-12), pp 151-177
author identifies nine periods of bridge construction:
Roman; pre and post Reformation; "Collection"
bridges; local, shire and military; and three consecutive
phases of turnpike bridges. He notes that after the
time of the Romans nothing seems to have been built
until the early Middle Ages. The earliest bridges in
Scotland were of wood, and were constructed from the
13th century onwards. Stone bridges began to appear
around 1500, as was the case elsewhere in Europe.
Ferries, Floats and Bridges near Lanark, Thomas Reid,
PSAS, Vol 47, (1912-13), pps 209-256
author details all the crossings on the River Cyde from
near Abington to Crossford, below Lanark, as well as
on the Mouse which runs into the Clyde at Lanark. As
well as giving the history of the crossings, he details
the associated routes, some of considerable antiquity.
Roads and Bridges in the Early History of Scotland,
Harry R G Inglis, PSAS, Vol 47, (1912-13), pp303-33
is a very useful account of roads and bridges up to
the 16th century. Topics covered are references in early
literature; references in contemporary documents including
early mentions of placenames like Bridgend; the comparative
chronology of bridges focussing on structural details
as indicators of age; the history of the main Pre-Reformation
bridges; and roads and bridges in the Pre-Reformation
Most Ancient Bridges in Britain, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS,
Vol.49, (1914-15), pps 256-74
is similar to the above paper but covers England and
Ireland as well as Scotland.
Roads that led to Edinburgh etc, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS,
Vol. 50, (1915-16), pps 18-49
author examines the map and charter evidence for some
early roads to Edinburgh, viz. Dere Street, Berwick,
Roxburgh and Kelso, Jedburgh, Hawick and Selkirk, Peebles,
Biggar, Lanark, Hamilton and Glasgow. He provides many
interesting insights, not least that Dere Street (and
other Roman roads) may be native routes adopted by the
Border Highways: The Minchmoor (Catrail) Road, the Wheel
Causeway, the Annandale Forest Road, the Well Path,
and the Enterkin, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS, Vol. 58 (1923-24),
author provides detailed information on each of these
roads, much of it obtained by examining them on the
ground. This helped to clarify their original purpose
and correct misleading or erroneous conclusions based
on the examination of (sometimes) incorrect maps.
points of interest are that the Minchmoor road was on
the only east-west route and showed very early defensive
works so was at least a potential invasion route in
the Dark Ages. In the Middle Ages it may have been part
of the route between Kelso Abbey and its Priory at Lesmahagow.
He examines the Wheel Causeway and concludes that it
was wrongly shown on the OS maps and identifies the
correct route which was probably that between Carlisle
and Berwick. He analyses the complicated network of
routes north of Moffat and argues that the main Roman
route to the Clyde was not by the road running to Crawford
but rather by a more direct line to the Tweed and Broughton.
Details are given of the Well Path which is part of
the very old route between Edinburgh and Whithorn. He
argues that the Enterkin route (Leadhills towards Thornhill),
although important at a later date, may have originated
in the need to transport lead to Dumfries.
Causeway map (based on 1905 OS map, with thanks)
New Roman Mountain Road in Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshire,
I A Richmond, PSAS, Vol 80 (1945-46), pps 104-117
had long been speculated that the isolated fort at Raeburnfoot
(near Eskdalemuir) was linked somehow to the Roman Road
network. Although this was thought to have been on a
north-south line, no evidence had been found for this.
A suggestion by R P Hardie (Roads of Mediaeval Lauderdale)
that an old road running across Craik Moor might be
Roman led to this route (heading for Trimontium) being
examined and accepted as Roman. The paper gives full
details of the remains of the road and is illustrated
(for illustration only)
Roman Road to Raeburnfoot, A Graham, PSAS, Vol 82, (1947-48),
to the above paper, the author notes work that confirms
the road continued south-west of Raeburnfoot, presumably
to join the main north-south Roman road north of Lockerbie.
He also discusses the possibility of a route down the
Esk to Langholm and Netherby (3 miles NNE of Longtown).
to Abbey: an Ancient Fife Route, R Fyfe Smith and Rev.
Norman M Johnston. PSAS, Vol 83 (1948-49), pps 162-167
abbey in question is Balmerino, situated on the south
side of the Tay opposite Dundee. In its chartulary mention
is made of a right of way granted in the early 1200's
to allow the monks to transport building stones from
a quarry at Strathkinness, 3 miles west of St Andrews.
The authors trace the likely course of the route, which
was 8 miles in length, and identify segments that still
remain. (see illustrative map
Old Road in the Lammermuirs, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol
83, (1948-49), pps 198-206
account of a route running across the Lammermuirs from
Long Yester (2 miles south of Gifford) to the valley
of the Leader Water just above Lauder. It may have been
part of a longer route between Haddington and Lauder
and probably originated in mediaeval times.
of area (based on 1914 OS map, with thanks. Shows
Military Survey routes)
communications in the Tweed Valley, Graham, A & Richmond,
I A., PSAS, Vol.87, (1952-53), 63-71
examination of the evidence for a Roman road running
westward from Trimontium and Dere Street to link with
the Roman roads in the Clyde Valley.
Old Roads in the Lammermuirs, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol.
93 (1959-60), pps 217-35
follows on from his paper listed above and examines
a network of old routes across the Lammermuirs. The
routes are Haddington to Duns, by Longformacus; Haddington
to the Whiteadder Water; Dunbar to the Dye Water (west
of Longformacus) and beyond; the Herring Road from Dumbar
to Lauder; Whiteadder Water to the Dye Water; and the
Military Survey's "Muir Road from Lauder to Dunbar".
The routes were used for droving to England as well
as for taking animals and farm produce to local markets.
One or two of the routes may be mediaeval in origin.
on a Great Post Road, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol. 96 (1962-63),
paper examines the route/s taken by the road between
Berwick and Edinburgh since early mediaeval times. Although
it is very close to the line of the A1 (before recent
improvements) from Edinburgh to Cockburnspath, the route
south of here was by the A1107 as far as Huxton and
then by minor roads through Ayton to rejoin the A1 just
north of Berwick. The difficulties encountered by travellers
at Ayton and Cockburnspath are detailed, as are changes
made in the turnpike era. Interesting details of old
bridges on the route are provided, as well as details
Military Road from Braemar to the Spittal of Glen Shee,
Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol.97, (1963-64), pps 226-236
author traces the course of this road, built about 1750,
and provides detailed descriptions of those sections
that still remain, along with historical details of
its construction. Bridges on the route are also described.
and Wayside Markers in Fife, Walter M Stephen, PSAS,
Vol 100 (1967-68), pp 179-184
paper details the types of milestone to be found in
Fife as well as wayside markers. The turnpike trusts
associated with each type are identified, and details
of their fabrication given when known.
Scottish campaigns of Septimus Severus, Nicholas Reed,
PSAS, Vol 107, (1975-76), pps 92-102
author looks at the available evidence to reconstruct
the Severan campaigns of 208-210. He argues for a preliminary
campaign against the Selgovae, followed by an advance
through Fife, and then campaigns up the east coast,
supported by the fleet. Two coins of the period depict
bridges and he suggests that one showing a bridge of
normal construction was built over the Tay near Carpow
( 5 miles ESE of Perth, near Newburgh), and the other,
a boat-bridge, was built at Queensferry with a road
linking the two locations.
and bridges in the Scottish Highlands: the route between
Dunkeld and Inverness, 1725 -1925, G R Curtis, PSAS,
Vol 110, (1978-80), pps 475-96
paper examines the roads and bridges constructed in
the Highlands by the Military authorities (the Wade
and Caulfield roads), the Parliamentary Commission for
Highland Roads and Bridges, and the Ministry of Transport
in its early days. Details of how the roads were constructed
in each period are given based on excavations undertaken
prior to the A9 Trunk Road reconstruction, as well as
descriptions of bridges in each period.
Roman Inscribed Stones and Architectural Fragments from
Scotland (Ingliston Milestone, Inveresk Altar), G S
Maxwell, PSAS, Vol 113, (1983), pps 379-390
paper contains a discussion on how the Ingliston milestone
could provide a clue to the route of Dere Street in
Scottish Itinerary of Mary Queen of Scots, 1542-8 and
1561-8, Edward M Furgol, PSAS, Vol.117, (1987), pps
detailed discussion of the journeys undertaken by Mary
Queen of Scots throughout Scotland. The microfiche provides
Chapman Billies Tak Their Stand": a pilot study
of Scottish chapmen, packsmen and peddlars, Roger Leitch,
PSAS, Vol 120 (1990), pps 173-188
is a comprehensive account of chapmen, itinerant vendors
who travelled the countryside with goods that were often
difficult to obtain otherwise. The paper contains interesting
details of the routes they followed and the dangers
they faced on their journeys.
Walk along the Antonine Wall in 1825: the travel journal
of the Rev. John Skinner, Lawrence Keppie, PSAS, Vol
133 (2003), pps 205-244
the roads and bridges of the Stirling area c 1660-1706,
John G Harrison, PSAS, Vol 135 (2005), pps 287-307.
The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland [data-set]. York:
Archaeology Data Service [distributor] (doi.org/10.5284/1000184)
following author has numerous papers in the PSAS on
castles in Scotland, mostly in the north-east. The papers
selected below contain some reference to the siting
of a castle in relation to early routes. The most comprehensive
treatment of routes is in
Early Castles of Mar", Vol 63, "Corgarff
Castle", Vol 61 and "Edzell
Castle", Vol 65.
W Douglas Note on Recent Excavations at Kildrummy Castle.Vol
54 (1919-1920) 134-45
W Douglas The Architectural History of Huntly Castle.
Vol 56 (1921-22) 134-63
W Douglas The Royal Castle of Kindrochit in Mar.Vol
57 (1922-23), 75-97
W Douglas The Development of Balvenie Castle. PSAS Vol
60 (1925-26), 132-48
W Douglas Corgarff Castle, Aberdeenshire. PSAS Vol 61
W Douglas The Early Castles of Mar. (First Paper.) PSAS,
Vol 63 (1928-29), 102-38
W Douglas Edzell Castle. PSAS, Vol 65 (1930-31),115-7
W Douglas Invermark Castle. PSAS, Vol 68 (1933-34),
W Douglas The Barony, Castle, and Church of Rothiemay.PSAS
Vol 69 (1934-35), 223-46
W Douglas Fyvie Castle PSAS Vol 73 (1938-39), 32-47
W Douglas Cairnbulg Castle, Aberdeenshire PSAS Vol 83
W Douglas Glenbervie and its castle PSAS Vol 105 (1972-74),