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Resources on the Old Roads of Scotland

Other Countries
Some links to other sites dealing with the history of roads in other countries

David Rumsey Map Collection - huge collection of historic maps for most countries, many showing roads. If you want to know what roads there were in Lithuania in 1799 or on Madeira in 1872 this is the site for you!

English Heritage, Pastscape - contains many records of roads and bridges
Northumberland National Park - search for roads or communications - very useful site
Lancashire CC site on history of Lancashire roads
A New and Accurate Description of all the Direct and Principal Crossroads in England and Wales and Part of the Roads of Scotland. 1803 Lt-Col. Daniel Paterson
See also an edition of 1776
History section of the Green Lane Association website
Useful list of digital books including Sydney and Beatrice Webb’s Story of the King’s Highway and Jusserand’s English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages
Highways Agency - a brief history of roads
Birmingham Roman Roads Project
Cambridge County Geographies 1 and 2. On Internet Archive. Scroll down list to see individual counties. Overviews of roads will be found in the Communications chapters.
Shropshire place-names ending in "ford", Susan Laflin
Roman Roads and Ford Place-names from Shropshire, Susan Laflin
The Saints' Way, Cornwall
Hilaire Belloc, The Old Road - a classic "old road" book following the course of the old road between Winchester and Canterbury - sunny days, rolling downland, old English pubs etc.etc.
Roads in Chobham
Toll Reform Petition - relating to the Metropolitan turnpikes, 1858
The Law Commission, Repeal of Turnpike Laws (Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk) - see consultation paper
Bibliography of Road Making and Maintenance in Great Britain, Sidney & Beatrice Webb, Road Improvement Association
The Society for All British and Irish Road Enthusiasts (SABRE) - huge forum site which is particularly useful for the history of roads in the past 50 years or so
Itinerary of King Edward the First throughout his reign A.D.1272-1307, (2 volumes), Henry Gough
Bennett, Robert (2008) The Management of Road Traffic in a Rural County: Herefordshire 1919-1939. PhD thesis, University of Coventry in association with the University of Worcester.
Aust - Beachley Ferry - this operated across the River Severn up until the opening of the Severn Bridge in 1966.
Herefordshire - link to publisher's site with three books on old roads and tracks in Herefordshire with sample chapters -authors are Heather and Jon Hurley
Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516, Samantha Letters, Centre for Metropolitan History. Comprehensive survey of markets and fairs in England and Wales.
Hutton, Gillian, Maria (2011) Roads and Routeways in County Durham: 1530-1730. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.

BBC programme on milestones in North Wales, with sound clips
Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales
Cambridge County Geographies - on Internet Archive. Scroll down list to see individual counties. Overviews of roads will be found in the Communications chapters.
Welsh Cattle Drovers in the Nineteenth Century, Richard Colyer, National Library of Wales journal. 1972, Winter, Volume XVII/4
Roman roads in South East Wales: Desk-based assessment, Edith Evans and Andy Sherman, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd 2004.

Isle of Man
A Manx Note Book - searches for roads, bridges etc. brings up much interesting material
Cambridge County Geographies - on Internet Archive. Overview of roads will be found in the Communications chapter.

A Smaller Social History of Ancient Ireland, P.W. Joyce chapter XXIV
Medieval Communication Routes through Longford and Roscommon and their Associated Settlements, Linda Doran
Irish History Online - bibliography on roads
An Account of Ireland, Statistical and Political By Edward Wakefield - short overview of Irish road system, 1812
A Statistical Account, Or, Parochial Survey of Ireland By William Shaw Mason, 1816 - short notes on roads by parish - see "other volumes" at foot of the Google Books page
An Analysis of Pre-Christian Ireland Using Mythology and A GIS, Dimitra-Alys A. Caviness
This paper discusses how mythology and modern GIS techniques could allow the possible routes for the Five Roads of Tara and the three cow roads to be identified.
Ask about Ireland - many short articles on the history of Irish roads
History of Roads in Ireland (Wikipedia)

Northern Ireland
The Industrial Archaeology of Northern Ireland By William Alan McCutcheon, 1984 - chapter on roads and bridges in Northern Ireland
The Antrim Coast Road – a Civil Engineering Legacy, David Orr, ICE

Roads of Migration, Places and Sounds of Remembrance in the Greek-Albanian Borderland - Eckehard Pistrick

History of Roads in Australia
Victoria - History of VicRoads
South Australia - Roads through History
Papers from the Australia ICOMOS Making Tracks conference, Alice Springs, May 2001 - mostly Australia but includes papers on Vietnam, the Framkincense Route, Penang, South Africa, Nepal and India

British Columbia
Frontier to Freeway - A Short Illustrated History of Roads in British Columbia

Maine's Historic Roadways

An introduction to the “Hard Roads to Shu” and their environment, history, and adventure since ancient times, David Jupp
The Shu Roads Project
The Ancient Tea-horse Road
History of the Tea & Horse Caravan Road
The Silk Road
The Stilwell Road (film on Internet Archives - narrated by Ronald Reagan)

Historic roads and bridges in Finland (pdf, 479 k)

Roads through the Ages: A Brief History by Jean Billard

Icelandic Road Sign Map - interesting road sign

Travels in Italy, between the years 1792 and 1798; containing a view of the late revolutions in that country. Likewise pointing out the matchless works of art which still embellish Pisa, Florence, Siena, Rome, Naples, Bologna, Venice, &c. With instructions for the use of invalids and families who may not chuse to incur the expence attendant upon travelling with a courier. Also a supplement comprising instructions for travelling in France, with descriptions of all the principal roads and cities in that republic (1802). Author: Mariana Starke.
This book, presumably for those going on a Grand Tour, is highly entertaining and full of curious information about roads and travel in Italy, Germany and France in the 1790's.

Roads & Resistance: The Toll Gate Riots of 1859 - from the Jamaica Gleaner

History of Japanese Roads
The Azuma- Nakasendo Road
Matsuo Basho: Narrow Road to the Deep North
A classic of Japanese literature. In 1689 Basho set off on a journey of discovery to the far north of Japan and recorded his thoughts in calm reflective prose and poetry.

How far must I walk
To the village of Kasajima
This endlessly muddy road
Of the early wet season?

Travel as Metaphor, Columbia University
Video commentary on Narrow Road to the Deep North (click "Show Video" then play - Real Player)
Japanese Historical Maps

History of Roads

El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro: The Royal Road to the Interior
A major historic route running between Mexico City and Santa Fe.

The Spaniards and Their Country, By Richard Ford, 1847 - overview of roads at that time
Sketches in Spain During the Years 1829, 30, 31, & 32, By Samuel Edward Widdrington - overview of roads

Old roads out of Philadelphia, John Thomson Faris, 1917
Highway History
List of digital books dealing with history of US highways
A History of Roads in Virginia
Private Highways in America, 1792-1916, Daniel B. Klein, The Freeman
Historic Highways - links to sites dealing with history of US highways
The Roads Aren't So Lonely Any More (Film on Internet Archives)

Roman Roads
Roman Roads in Britain, by Thomas Codrington
Wikipedia section on Roman roads
Links on Roman roads from the Birmingham Roman Roads Project
Histoire des grands chemins de l'Empire romain, Nicolas Bergier, 1736 - although this is in French, it is included here as it is a classic work on Roman roads

The Roads of Ancient Cyprus - although this is a book, it is included here as there is an interesting excerpt on methodology on the site

A historical geography of Ghana, Kwamina B. Dickson - contains most of a chapter on the development of roads in Ghana

Namibian Roads in History - from the 13th century till today, Dr.-Ing. Klaus Dierks (see foot of page for link to complete work)

From Dirt Tracks to Modern Highways: Towards a History of Roads and Road Transportation in Colonial Zimbabwe, 1890 to World War II, Alois S. Mlambo, Department of Economic History, University of Zimbabwe

Cultural Routes
The European Institute of Cultural Routes - pdf explaining its origin, structure and purpose
European Institute of Cultural Routes - Atlas of Cultural Routes (go to top right of page to "Inside this Domain" to access themes
Cultural Corridors of South-East Europe

International Council on Monuments and Sites

Pilgrim Routes
Sites relating to pilgrimage routes

The Frankincense Route
The Story of Frankincense - Middle East Institute
The Country of Frankincense, Pliny the Elder, The Natural History - see also 12.31 and 12.32