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Annan Dumfries Hutton & Corrie Lochmaben Tinwald
Applegarth Dunscore Johnstone Middlebie Tundergarth
Caerlaverock Durisdeer Keir Moffat Torthorwald
Canonby Eskdalemuir Kirkconnel Morton Tynron
Closeburn Ewes Kirkmahoe Mouswald Wamphray


Glencairn Kirkmichael Penpont Westerkirk
Dalton Gretna Kirkpatrick-Fleming Ruthwell
Dornock Hoddam Kirkpatrick-Juxta St Mungo's
Drysdale Holywood Langholm Sanquhar

Click on parish for text
AnnanApplegarthCaerlaverockCanonbyCloseburnCummertreesDaltonDornockDrysdaleDumfriesDunscoreDunscoreDurisdeerEskdalemuirEwesGlencairnGretnaHoddamHolywoodHutton & CorrieJohnstoneKeirTynronMortonPenpontSanquharKirkconnelRuthwellKirkpatrick FlemingMoffatWesterkirkKirkmahoeTinwaldTorthorwaldMouswaldMiddlebieTundergarthSt MungoLangholmLochmabenKirkmichaelWamphrayKirkpatrick JuxtaHalf Morton (see Langholm)
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The OSA references below are to the Edina site. In most cases they are to the main entry on roads for each parish but some additional links are provided to other relevant information. When Edina page appears go to browse scanned pages for the link.
Additional information about parishes can be found at the Vision of Britain site.
NSA references are mostly to the GoogleBooks site, usually to the means of communication section. There may be other passing references to roads in a parish account.

Some older photographs are from the Detroit Publishing Company's Views of Landscape and Architecture in Scotland - see thumbnails on Library of Congress site here.

There are several mentions of Roman roads in the Accounts. A main road ran north from Carlisle to Burnswark and then to Moffat, Crawford and beyond. A branch road led from this over to Lochmaben and Nithsdale from where it ran north past Durisdeer to rejoin the main road at Crawford. Also mentioned was a road up to the camp at Netherby and to Langholm.

More unusual and unconfirmed references to Roman roads are for a road up to Castle O'er and reports that a road had been found at Overcassey in Eskdalemuir parish, a road across the Nith to Doon of Tynron and a road running through Tynron parish. In Wamphray parish there were a number of standing stones along the line of the main road north that were conjectured to be Roman milestones.

The usual remarks about roads are made. Under the statute labour system roads were often poorly made and maintained. Parts of some parishes were inaccessible in the mid-1700's, although in other parishes the roads could be fine. There were improvements when a monetary payment could be made rather than carry out the actual labour. This commutation system could be unfair at times as in Holywood where the commutation rate was higher where it was more difficult to make the roads. In St Mungo's parish, those needing poor assistance were employed on the roads at 2d below the normal rate to avoid a drain on the poor funds. Poor women were employed to gather stones and fill carts.

The first turnpikes were made under an act of 1776 and led to a great improvement and the usual benefits to the local economy though there were the usual grumblings from some. A network of main roads was quickly established joining the main towns, and the county with Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Carlisle, Portpatrick etc. and stagecoach and carrier services became more frequent. Many bridges date from this time, some replacing dangerous fords and ferries where people had drowned. The Nith could be forded at very low tides to reach New Abbey, and the Solway could be crossed at Dornock but at great risk.

The Military Road from Carlisle to Portpatrick has a few mentions. It had been made by the government but needed maintenance which it did not always get and so deteriorated. It was eventually made a toll road but was generally replaced by other roads, in some cases like in Mousewald running parallel to it.

The larger towns of Annan, Langholm, Dumfries, Lockerby and Moffat had regular markets, and Wanlockhead and Leadhills were a ready outlet for local produce. Droving was carried out with 20,000 black cattle passing through Lockerby each year on their way to England; Irish cattle also passed through Dumfries. There was a fair for lambs at Langholm and pig farming was becoming established at the time of the NSA in the parishes of Hoddom, Johnstone, Mousewald and Lockerby with markets at Dumfries and Annan. It had been common practice in hard winters for farmers in upland areas like Eskdalemuir to bring their sheep down to Nithsdale, Annandale and lower Eskdale for the winter months but the practice had ceased due to enclosures and using turnip for winter feed.

Numerous harbours and landing places along the Solway coast are mentioned and there was considerable trade with Cumberland and Liverpool, particularly of imports like coal and slate and exports of agricultural produce. Coal was also available from Sanquhar and near Canonby and early depots were set up in Sanquhar and Dunscore, constantly supplied by wagons from the New Cumnock area. Some peat was used where available. Lime for manure could be had a various locations. There are several mentions of the vagrant poor.

A number of great roads, now turnpiked, pass through the parish. These are Dumfries to Carlisle, Annan and Edinburgh by Moffat, and Edinburgh by Langholm.
Cross roads have been made and repaired by conversion money. This is 3d per L.Sterling of real rent for those living in the burgh and 12 s. on each 100 merks for those living in the landward part of the parish.
The town has a port.


There is a considerable port here with export of grain, wool etc. to Liverpool and the Lancashire towns, and the import of merchant goods. A fine road, some 40 feet wide, was made about 4 years ago from the town to the jetties. This is always busy when the steamers are due.
A fine new bridge replaced the old one in 1824. While it was being built a wooden temporary one was used. The old bridge had been rebuilt in 1724 but was long thought to be dangerous and inconvenient because of its narrowness.
Roads - The Dumfries to Carlisle coach road passes through as well as a road to Edinburgh by Kirtlebridge and Langholm and one by Stapleton, Kilpatrick and Chapelknow to join the Edinburgh and Carlisle road near Canonbie. There is a branch from the Langholm road to Ecclefechan where it meets the Carlisle to Glasgow road and another road to Brydekirk village. All these roads are funded by tolls and public assessments.

Six miles of the Carlisle to Edinburgh and Glasgow turnpike runs through the parish. This was made about 15 years ago and has been of great advantage. The London - Glasgow mail coach passes through daily and there are carriers each day to Glasgow and to Carlisle and further south. There is a stage at Dinwoodie Green where the coach stops and horses are changed. This is 5 miles from Lockerby where there is a post office. It is 11 miles to Ecclefechan and 11 miles to Moffat both of which are also stages and have post offices.
A diligence runs through Moffat to Edinburgh three times a week - travel to Edinburgh and Glasgow is easy.

Markets and Means of Communication - The nearest markets are at Lockerby and Lochmaben.
The Glasgow-Carlisle-London road runs through the parish. In addition to the mail coach there is now a light-mail coach that travels at 11 mph.
There are two bridges over the Annan: one is on the Glasgow road and the other is on the road leading from Dumfries over to Eskdale. They were built in 1818 and 1827 respectively. In the Sibbaldie part of the parish there are two stone bridges and a wooden bridge over the Dryfe.
Fair, Inns etc - There used to be four annual fairs here but they are no longer held. There is an inn, used mostly by those on the Glasgow road. Toll keepers for a time held licences to sell spirits but are now restricted to selling "malt-liquor".
Fuel - Peat obtained locally. Such coal as is used comes from Cumberland via Annan.

OSA ; see also p.362

Caerlaverock Castle
Caerlaverock Castle

There are harbours at Keltown and Glencaple which can take vessels of 80/90 tons. Larger vessels unload at the Carse, 6 miles below Glencaple Key.

The Nith can be forded at low water; at very low tides New Abbey can be reached. On the other side of the parish, Lochar Moss is only passable on foot in the driest months of summer.
There is a quay at Glencaple where larger vessels can unload. A steamer sails regularly to Liverpool. The quay generates considerable traffic both of passengers and goods.
There is a market in Dumfries every Wednesday which is well attended from this parish. There is no turnpike.
Fuel - Peat is the most common fuel but coals may be had at the coast. Some lime is also landed here but mostly comes from Kellhead, 10 miles away.
A road is proposed which would run from Glencaple quay through the moss to the Annan road at Mouswald, which would be a great benefit. The Dumfries and Annan mail used to pass through here by Bankend on a road which while in a reasonable condition in this parish has practically disappeared in Ruthwell parish because of the incursions of the Solway. A road from Bankend bridge to Annan to replace this would be advantageous. The road from Glencaple to Dumfries is in "tolerable repair."

Great progress has been made in recent years. Twenty years ago, much of the parish was inaccessible except for those parts near the River Esk or in a very dry summer. Since then roads have been made on the east and west sides of the parish with branches to almost every farm.
To make and maintain these roads the Duke of Buccleugh has set aside 5 per cent of the land-rent of the parish along with £50 from his own pocket. This was supplemented by a levy on the carriage of coal and the statute labour commutation money, which of itself was quite inadequate for its purpose.
There is a toll at the Scotch Dike, the money being applied to the upkeep of the post road.
There are about 10 bridges of one arch, and many smaller ones in the parish. There are two larger bridges over the Esk. One of three arches was built about 50 years ago after the boat, used for ferrying people to and from church, overturned and a number of people were drowned.
The other bridge was finished last summer and has shortened the route to the colliery at Byreburnfoot and removed a steep climb on the post road. It also disclosed "new romantic scenes to the traveller that mock all description." Another bridge nearby will be built next year.

There are remains of a Roman camp about a mile east of Gilnockie, presumably on a line between the camps at Netherby and Castle O’er.
Market-towns - Langholm is the nearest market and post town, although markets at Longtown and Carlisle are also attended.
Sixty years ago most places outwith the valley of the Esk were almost inaccessible except in a very dry summer. Now there are good roads on both the west and east sides of the parish with branches to the main farms. The statute labour conversion money was insufficient to make and repair the roads so the Duke of Buccleuch raised sufficient funds out of the land rent of the parish, supplemented by some of his own money and a toll on loads of coal. The post road is funded by the tolls raised at the toll bar which was situated at the Scotch dike.
Bridges - There are 10 bridges of one arch over various streams and many smaller bridges. The Esk has two fine bridges. One was built by the county some 90 years ago and was much needed as the river was difficult to cross and indeed dangerous with many people drowning. The other was built at the private expense of the Duke of Buccleuch some 42 years ago and is very striking in appearance. A new line of one and a half miles for the turnpike road was made which avoids a difficult pull on the old road and shortens the distance to the colliery at Byreburnfoot. There is also a new bridge over the Liddle above Penton Linn which makes for easy travel between Liddesdale and England.
The mail coach between Edinburgh and Carlisle as well as other coaches to England pass through the parish.
Fuel - Coal and peat are easily obtained locally.

OSA; see also markets etc.

Auldgirth Bridge
Auldgirth Bridge built 1781-2 This road at Dinning south of Closeburn is shown on the Military Survey of c.1750 - the motte & bailey on the right suggests it is much older

There are markets for corn and meal at Dumfries (12 miles), and at Wanlockhead and Leadhills (18/19 miles).
The Dumfries to Glasgow and Ayr road runs through the parish, with a comfortable inn at Bromhill, halfway between Dumfries and Sanquhar.
There are many bridges and generally the roads are good.

The nearest market town is Dumfries, 12 miles away.
Of turnpike roads there are 8 miles of the road connecting Annandale with Nithsdale and 6 miles of the Glasgow Carlisle road that runs via Dumfries. There is a branch from the latter to Edinburgh. A coach from Carlisle to Glasgow runs each day, and one from Dumfries to Edinburgh three times a week.

The Military Road has been turnpiked which is a great improvement as it had been in disrepair and there had not been enough funds to maintain it.
A new road to Dumfries, north of the Military Road, had been built which has made travel easier for those near the road. The Statute Labour roads are generally poor.

Parochial Economy - The nearest market and post town is Annan, four miles away. There are 12 miles of turnpike and the parish roads are good.
Fuel - Peat is mostly used but coal can be obtained from Cumberland.

The new turnpike from Annan to Dumfries passes through the parish.

The nearest market towns are Annan and Dumfries. Annan is used for shipping grain and barley to Liverpool. These towns are easily reached both by the parish roads and the Carlisle to Portpatrick turnpike.
Fuel - Peat is mostly used but will soon be worked out; coal from England can be obtained at Annan.

OSA; see also minerals, cattle etc.
Vessels of 100 tons can reach to a point 5 or 6 miles to the east of the parish.
It is possible to cross at risk to Cumberland some 18 miles away.
The village itself is on the Military Road. This had been made by the government but was now a toll road.
Some of the cross-roads were Statute Labour, now commuted but little has been spent on them in the last 5 years.
The parish has 66 carts and 48 wheel cars or tumbrils.

Salmon caught locally are sent to Carlisle.
Parochial Economy - The Carlisle to Portpatrick turnpike runs through the parish - the mail coach runs on it as well as a heavy coach to Edinburgh and Glasgow. Many goods from the area are taken to Bowness from where steamers sail to Liverpool.
Fuel - What coal is used comes from Cumberland by small vessels, and lime from Kelhead, six miles away.

Drysdale (Dryfesdale)
OSA; see also markets and Roman roads
Peat scarce and expensive. Coal brought long distances from Sanquhar and Cumberland.
Two fairs and 10 markets held in Lockerbie with considerable trade.


A Roman road runs from the border up to Burnswark and then to Lockerby, Drysdale Gate and Gallaberry. It divides there with one branch leading to Moffat then Tweeddale and Clydesdale, and another crossing the Annan to Lochmaben where there is a double fort called Woody Castle. From there it passes up the west side of the Water of Ae into Nithsdale.
The London to Edinburgh and Glasgow turnpike runs through Lockerbie and this parish. The mail coach from the south arrives at the post office every evening and from the north in the morning. It takes about 50 hours to travel the 336 miles from Lockerbie to London.


Each spring and after the harvest, some 20,000 black cattle from the North and West Highlands are driven through on their way to England. About 50 cartloads of goods pass each week on their way to and from Glasgow.
The commutation money is about L45 annually and by judicious application has kept the parish roads in excellent repair. One benefit has been the carriage of lime which has improved the ground.

Civil history - A Roman road ran from the borders of England up to Burnswark then to Dryfesdale gate and the Gallaberry. From there there was a branch to Moffat up to Clydesdale and Tweeddale, and a branch westward over to Woody Castle near Lochmaben, then by the west side of the Water of Ae and by Nithsdale to the west.
Means of Communication - The post and turnpike road from London to Edinburgh and Glasgow passes through the parish. On this road, there is an old but still sound bridge over the Dryfe; and another on a parish road over the Milk at Scroggs. There is a new road from Dumfries to Langholm by Lockerbie on which a bridge has been built at Stullahill in 1830. It is of wood covered with cast iron and is very elegant.
Fairs - Two fairs and several markets, as well as weekly markets in winter for the sale of pork. All are very well attended.
Inns - Chaises and horses can be hired at one of the two inns in the town.

OSA; see whole report for references in passing
There are two weekly markets and three annual fairs.
The port extends from Southwick (in Colvend parish) to the foot of Sark Water, although vessels can only discharge at Dumfries or Annan.

High Street, Dumfries, click for larger image The old bridge at Dumfries
High Street, Dumfries, c.1900 The old bridge

There is a mail coach to London each weekday and a daily post between Edinburgh and Portpatrick.
The roads in and near Dumfries are in very good condition. There are tolls on the roads to Edinburgh, Annan and Lochmaben. The first of these roads was made about 20 years ago by public subscription, and a road to Annan through Lockermoss was funded by money paid by a merchant for tobacco but which was never claimed.
The statute labour roads are made and repaired with commutation money.
Each week a waggon of 6 horses goes to Carlisle, about 8 or 10 post chaisses are kept at the inns and 5 families have four-wheeled chaisses and four have whiskies.
Coals are brought from Sanquhar.

Dumfries Town House Mileage Panel on Town House dated 1827 - note the mention of Huntingdon, at that time a centre for the droving trade

Means of Communication - Three turnpike roads run in the parish - each for about three miles. There are daily mail-coaches to and from London, Edinburgh and Portpatrick, as well as coaches and carriers to Edinburgh, Glasgow and London.
As the river has been deepened, vessels can reach near to the town. There are also quays nearer the mouth of the river for larger boats.
Fuel - Coal is brought from Sanquhar and also from Maryport and Whitehaven. Some peat from Lochar Moss is also used.




No mention of roads.

Antiquities - On Springfield-hill there are traces of a military station which may have been Roman as it is close to an old Roman road which passed through Kirkmahoe parish on the other side of the Nith. As Burnswark and the Barhill of Tinwald can be easily seen, it would have been easy to communicate by signal with the camp at Burnswark.
There are two towers which stand on opposite sides of a narrow pass in Gleneslin. Their names are Bogrie and Sundaywell.
Markets etc - Dumfries is the nearest market town, some nine miles from the centre of the parish. Minnyhive is a post town but Dumfries is more convenient.
Means of Communication - The Dumfries to Glasgow turnpike (on which coaches run each day to Glasgow and Edinburgh) passes through with a branch from Friar’s Carse through the full length of the parish to Balmaclellan and New Galloway. Another road leads from Dumfries to Ayr by Minnyhive and a stagecoach has recently started running on this every two days. All the roads are good. The only toll is a side bar serving as a check to the Newbridge toll in Holywood parish. Dalgonar Bridge has a span of 80 feet and is the only bridge of any size in the parish.
Fuel - The main fuel is peat, obtained locally. However there is a coal depot at Allanton in the parish, supplied from Sanquhar, which is very convenient. The coal waggons "are constantly plying on the roads" to supply this depot.


The Well Path - looking towards the Roman fortlet and road north of Durisdeer Ford at Durisdeer

OSA; see also
To the west a road leads up the Nith to Sanquhar, Ayr etc; to the north there is a road up the Enterkin to Leadhills and Edinburgh etc; and to the north-east there is a straight pass known as the Well Path, which leads to Edinburgh by Crawford Muir.
Coarse wool for carpets sent to Kilmarnock and Kendal.
The Nith is fordable in only 2 or 3 places - there is a bridge near the foot of the parish.
Lambs are sent to fairs at Langholm, Lockerby, Lanark etc and to Edinburgh. Black cattle are sent to England.
The statute labour is commuted but the roads are poor. A road from Durisdeer to connect the Well Path with the Sanquhar road would be a great advantage, particularly in the carriage of coals. Also of advantage would be a bridge over the Nith, even if of timber: a good site would be Auchenbreath, where there is solid rock on each side of the river.

The nearest market town is Dumfries, 20 miles away. There are 6 miles of turnpike roads in the parish and a stagecoach to Glasgow each day and Edinburgh three times a week. There is no post office. Coal is the most common fuel and is obtained from Sanquhar. Roads and bridges are much improved since the previous Statistical Account.


Samye Ling: a Tibetan monastery situated in Eskdalemuir

In the past the parish suffered from want of proper communications. Now, however, there is an excellent road from Langholm to the head of the moor and another from the church to Moffat, Dumfries and Lockerby. A bridge is soon to be built over the Esk.
It is of interest that Castle O’er has a line of sight with other encampments down the Esk to Netherby and down the Water of Milk to Middleby.
There is a Roman road from Netherby to near Langholm and reports that it may have been discovered near Over-Causeway at the head of this parish.

A fair was formerly held where the Black and White Esk rivers meet.

Two new roads are to be made:
- from the church at Langholm to Hawick either by Borthwick Water or Glendinning and Teviot Head. This would save the journey by Waugh-hope-dale or Ecclefechan for the Dumfries to Hawick road;
- Langholm to Edinburgh by Eskdalemuir, Tima, Crosslee, Benbengarburn, Traquair, Innerleithen and Middleton.

Looking towards the Roman camp at Raeburnfoot and the Craik Cross Roman road

Until the start of the present century (1800), farmers used to take their sheep to Annandale if the winter was too severe. A memorandum notes that in 1802 sheep were taken from Crawfurdmuir, Tweedsmuir, Ettrick, Yarrow, the head of Teviotdale, Ewes and Eskdalemuir down to Nithsdale, Annandale and lower Eskdale. The practice has ceased partly because of enclosures in Annandale and partly because ways have been found of feeding the sheep in winter.
Means of communication - There are no turnpike roads here. The twenty-one miles of parish road are made and maintained by an assessment on heritors and tenants.
There is a bridge over the White Esk and one over the Black Esk, with plans to build another over the Black Esk on the road to Lockerby, Lochmaben, Dumfries and Moffat. This will allow the lime-works in Middlebie parish to be easily reached.
A survey, under the superintendence of Mr Telford, has been completed for a coach road from Carlisle through Gariston Bridge, Middleby, Eskdalemuir, Ettrick, Yarrow, Innerleithen and Middleton to Edinburgh. This would be 12 miles shorter than the present road through Langholm and Hawick.
Fuel - Abundant supplies of peat are available locally although if there is wet weather there can be difficulties.

The Edinburgh to Carlisle road by Hawick and Langholm runs along the banks of the Ewes. It was planned by a Mr Pulteney and built in 1765. Another public road leads east to Liddesdale, and another allows access to Dumfries and Moffat.

Langholm is the nearest market and post town.
There are good roads in all directions. The Edinburgh to Carlisle road by Hawick and Langholm follows the Ewes for some 8 miles in the parish; several coaches to London run on this road as well as the Carlisle mail coach. Mr Pulteney of Westerhall obtained an act of Parliament in 1763 to allow this road to be built.
A road runs eastwards into Liddesdale and another to Dumfries and Moffat. Both these roads are funded by an assessment on the rents of the heritors, and the statute labour commutation money obtained from the tenants. Ecclesiastical state - there was a church at Ewesduris at the head of Ewesdale where a pass runs into Teviotdale. The name comes from the British or Irish word for pass.
Fuel - Peat as well as coal from Canonbie is used.

See also The Ewes Valley, An Historical Miscellany, by Brenda I. Morrison and R. Bruce McCartney



There is a stone bridge near to Minnyhive (Moniave) and Dunreggan over the Dalwhat Water.
There would be advantages if the Ayr to Dumfries road by Dalmellington could join the great road from Wigton to Galloway, if this were completed, at the head of Craigdarroch, a distance of only 5 miles.

Dumfries is the nearest market town and is 15 miles away. A daily post goes to Minnyhive. There are 18 miles of turnpike road in the parish, with a coach three times a week between Dumfries and Glasgow. The turnpike has four good bridges on its line with six other bridges on the parish roads. Three fairs are held each year in Minnyhive; a market for lambs was recently established and promises to be successful. Peat is 4 miles away and coal 16 miles.

Graitney (Gretna)

The Blacksmith's Shop beside the old Glasgow road

Vessels of 120 tons can reach Sarkfoot. There are landing places at Sarkfoot, Hiedkirkpoint and Brewhouses but vessels can also lie on the shore.
The roads north to Moffat for Edinburgh/Glasgow, the Portpatrick Road, and the Glasgow road by Sanquhar, Muirkirk etc separate at Headlesscross, close to the new village of Springfiield.
The turnpike act dates from 1777. There are two bridges at Sark and at Kirtle on the Portpatrick road.
Graitney Hall is now an inn and post-chaisses can be hired there.

An old Roman road leads to Middlebie and Birrenswark. Boats come from Cumberland with coals and slate; grain and potatoes are taken to Liverpool and Lancashire. Means of Communication - The highways from Carlisle to Glasgow and to Portpatrick pass through the parish. The old Carlisle road crosses the Glasgow road in the village - it is still the nearest way to Longtown, Brampton and Newcastle. The post office is in Gretna but connects only with Carlisle which adds to the expense of mail to Scotland. The public and parish roads are in fine condition. There is a bridge over the Kirtle and two over the Sark. Vessels of up to 20 tons land locally, bringing coal and slate from Cumberland and taking grain and potatoes to Lancashire.
Fuel - The main fuel is peat although coal is brought both from the Cumberland coast and from Brampton and Canonbie.


Parish is very well provided with roads. The turnpike from Gretna to Moffat runs centrally through the parish with 5 cross roads, each of which is of turnpike standard. The roads and the easy access to lime has resulted in great improvements.
Prior to the local turnpike act of 1777, most of the roads were unmade, or poorly repaired, and throughout Annandale were impassable in winter.

Ecclefechan was an important stop on the turnpike

The four great roads of the county have been properly repaired since the passing of this act: the roads are Edinburgh by Langholm; by Moffat to Edinburgh and Glasgow; to Portpatrick by Dumfries; and Ayrshire by Sanquhar. The Annan to Langholm road is also a turnpike. Annual income from tolls is 1700 L.
Although lime is easily transported, coal is 16 miles away and very expensive because of this.
The village of Ecclefechan has two good inns which passengers can use - these have post chaisses and post horses. The mail coach between London and Glasgow passes through daily in each direction.

There is a monthly market in Ecclefechan but the market in Annan is more frequented. Recently a pork market has been established here and promises well for the future.
Means of Communication - The parish is well served by carriers who travel to many places within a distance of about 50 miles. One carrier goes to Edinburgh each fortnight and the Glasgow to London mail coach passes through each day.
There is a fine bridge over the Annan, two smaller bridges over the Mein and several small ones in Ecclefechan which "give a peculiar appearance to the village."
Apart from the Glasgow road there are five very good cross roads

When the roads were under the statute labour system, they were "neither half made, nor half kept in repair." An act allowing the conversion of statute labour into a monetary payment set the rate at a maximum of 12 shillings per 100 merks. However, this operates unfairly as some are assessed at the full rate where road making is difficult, and others are only rated at 6 shillings.
The roads are well made and kept but the amount collected is insufficient as there is a great deal of through traffic.
A turnpike is now being made between Carlisle and Glasgow and is to be finished next year. Tolls are moderate.
There are a number of bridges, and these are kept in repair by the parish with the exception of a large bridge over the Cluden which was built and is kept in repair by the county of Dumfries and the Stewartry, it being on the boundary between them.
There is an old ford on the Cluden with stepping stones called Stepford.

Dumfries is the main market town.
In the summer the Nith can be forded at three places. The Cluden has a ford which is often unusable in winter. A wooden bridge is being built two miles downstream from the ford which will be a great benefit.
There are 30 miles of road giving easy access to all parts of the parish. They are funded from the statute labour conversion money.
The turnpike from Carlisle to Glasgow by Dumfries passes through with regular coaches to Carlisle, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Ayr.
Coal and peat are used as fuel.

United Parishes of Hutton and Corrie
OSA (short references in passing)

Looking down the Dryfe Water from Boreland

There are 80 carts in the parish.
The lower part of the parish had previously suffered from a want of roads.
Cattle passes through.

The nearest market and post town is Lockerbie, 7 miles away. Dumfries, despite being 17 miles distant, is favoured, with regular carriers to the town.
Means of communication - There have been great improvements to the roads in the past 30 years. There are two main lines of road; one from Dumfries, Lochmaben and Lockerbie to Eskdalemuir, Ettrick and Hawick, the other running from Moffat to Langholm and Carlisle. There are good bridges over the Dryfe, Corrie and Milk.
Fuel - Peat is obtained locally - considerable time is expended in the summer months in cutting and carting it. Coal is obtainable from Annan but is very expensive.
Vagrants - The parish is much oppressed by the vagrant poor.

The Moffat to Dumfries road is in good repair. There are no turnpikes and the statute labour is commuted. St Ann’s bridge over the Kinnel Water was built by the Earl of Hopeton in1782.
Coal is brought 30 miles from Sanquhar on a very bad road. As there is a better road to Douglas, it is easier to bring it from there even though it is further away.

Manufactures - A large amount of bacon is prepared here, much of it taken to Longtown for distribution to Newcastle and other towns in the north-east of England.
Markets etc - Lockerby and Moffat.
Means of Communication - Post towns are Moffat, Lochmaben and Lockerby.
Five miles of the excellent London - Carlisle - Glasgow road runs through the parish; there are also five miles of the Dumfries - Edinburgh road and six miles of the Moffat to Lochmaben and Annan turnpike. Mail coaches and coaches run on these roads.
The first bridge over the Kinnel was at St Anns (8 miles S of Moffat on Dumfries road) dating from 1782 with several wooden bridges nearby. A bridge over the Annan was built at Johnstone Mills in 1818.
Fuel - Peat obtained locally.
Miscellaneous - Roads have greatly improved in the last 40 years.

The principal road in the parish is very poor with some parts still unmade and others badly repaired. The statute labour conversion money raises £12 each year but this is insufficient for the purpose. The bad roads are a bar to progress.

The nearest market town is Dumfries. Mail is brought by runner from Thornhill.
There are three turnpike roads in the parish: Dumfries to Penpont, Penpont to Glencairn and the Dumfries to Thornhill road which has coaches to Edinburgh and Glasgow.
There are 5 good bridges - a new suspension bridge has recently been built over the Scar.
Fuel - Coal from Sanquhar is mostly used.


Realignment north of Sanquhar Click for larger image
Realignment about 2 miles north of Sanquhar on Crawfordjohn road. The modern road is to the right of the picture.

As well as the old great road from Sanquhar to Cumnock, there is a side road leading to the Earl of Dumfries’s lime quarry and one near the Crawick river leading towards Crawfordjohn.
A great turnpike between Glasgow and Carlisle is nearing completion; however, it is thought that its course in the wildest and highest part of the parish will lead to difficulties in winter time.
A toll bar has been erected on the old great road and this is disliked by local people affected by this.

Realignment at Spango Water
A few miles further on there is another realignment and new bridge at the Spango Water. An old droving route passed through here.

Three stone bridges are mentioned by the writer, one of which over the Crawick on the boundary with Sanquhar parish was built in 1706 by the Duke of Queensberry.
Note: the Glasgow Carlisle turnpike ran over to Muirkirk and Strathaven but the Muirkirk stretch never seems to have been successful.

Means of Communication - Roads are good although bridges are needed are needed on the main road in the upper part of the parish. A coach runs each day on this road between Carlisle and Glasgow.
The post town is Sanquhar with a daily post by letter carrier.
Lime is brought in from Whitcleuch farm in Crawfordjohn parish. The road there is poor but it expected to open up that part of the parish in a few years with good roads on which mail coaches and others could travel from Portpatrick to Glasgow and Edinburgh. This would connect with a new road already made in Galloway and would make journeys to these places some 30 miles shorter.

The roads are very good. The surplus of funds are used to improve some cross-roads. There are three bridges on the principal high road and four other bridges in the parish.

Antiquities - Dr Singer’s Survey of the county refers to a Roman road passing through the north of the parish. Market-Town - The local market town is Dumfries just a few miles away. There is no post office here and a daily runner or penny post would be useful. A good public road runs for 6 miles through the parish. Bridges are well maintained.
Fuel - Apart from peat, coal is also used and comes from Sanquhar, Kirkconnel and Mansfield as well as Cumberland.

A Roman road passes through the parish.

Antiquities - A branch of the Roman road leading from Netherby to the forts between the Forth and Clyde can be seen crossing a moss and terminating at a castellum in the village.
Parochial Economy - Dumfries is the main market town. There are five miles of turnpike road on which the mail coach between Edinburgh and Dumfries runs.

Kirkpatrick Fleming
The Carlisle - Glasgow and Edinburgh via Moffat roads run through the south part of the parish. The Annan - Langholm - Hawick - Edinburgh road also passes through.
The statute labour has been commuted into a financial payment. On Springhall Estate a number of tenants have voluntarily subscribed 2½% upon their rents for the roads.

The Carlisle to Glasgow road and to Edinburgh by Moffat runs for 5 miles through the parish - the Glasgow mail runs on this each day. It is crossed by a road from Annan to Edinburgh by Langholm and Selkirk which trends in a northerly direction. Another road from Annan to Langholm, which goes by Stapleton, Beltenmont and Chapelknowe goes in an easterly direction.
There are four bridges over the Kirtle, linking this parish with Middlebie; and another at Beltenmont which gives access to Dornock. There is a small bridge at Cleughside also leading to Dornock parish. The Glasgow road has two bridges.
Fuel - Peat is the most common fuel but coal is also carted in from Canonbie and Annan.
There is a need for a road from Sarkshields to the church here, by Gilshaw’s flow.

Kirkpatrick - Juxta
Mention in passing of recently made turnpikes.
A Roman road runs from south to north through the parish.

Moffat has a post office, weekly market, two fairs and a cattle and sheep show and sale.
Means of Communication - The Glasgow to Carlisle and the Edinburgh to Dumfries turnpikes cross each other at Beattock. Parish roads are generally good, as are the bridges.
Miscellaneous - A road over the hills to the limeworks at Closeburn would be a great advantage, especially if the line extended from Drumcrieff Bridge over to Bodisbeck height as this would shorten the distance to Hawick and allow an east-west route through Moffat and indeed, Closeburn.
The turnpike to Lochmaben is incomplete.
Note: The church of Kirkpatrick Juxta lay about 3 miles south of Moffat and Drumcrieff Bridge crossed the Moffat Water about 2 miles SSE of Moffat. Bodisbeck is about 6 miles NE of Moffat on the Selkirk road (A708). He seems to be talking about a line of road that would have ran from Hawick to the head of Ettrick Water to cross over to the Moffat Water and down to Drumcrieff Bridge (a track along this line is shown on early maps). From there it would have continued across the hills to Closeburn. Thomson in 1828 shows the Selkirk road (A708) up the Moffat Water, so the writer may have been talking about a new road to Bodisbeck.

OSA- see also Roman road

Langholm Bridge - Telford worked as a journeyman on this "Bridge over the Ewes on the post road"

A new road opened in October 1793 has made travel much easier to a chapel, situated 8 miles from the parish church. Two miles of which after leaving the Langholm to Annan road were often impassable. Improved links to Longtown, Sarkfoot, Gretna etc. are expected (p.356).
There is a great road between Carlisle and Edinburgh and a road west to Annan. There are three toll bars, one at each end of town and another at Solwaybank.
A country road crosses the Esk at Langholm and leads north west into Eskdale; another runs south-eastwards to Canonbie by a bridge over the Tarrafs.
A road is being planned through Wauchopedale which will shorten the distance to Lockerbie, Ecclefechan and beyond.
There is a three-arch bridge in Langholm on the Eskdale road; this was built in 1775 by subscription. Nearby there is a bridge over the Ewes on the post road. There is another bridge on the south side of town. There are a few other bridges of no particular note. Elsewhere there is a fine bridge over the Esk at Gilknocky, built in 1793 (pps. 362 and 371).
A Mr Pulteney has spent considerable sums in road building in the area, including 8 miles of the Annan road (p.377).
A Roman road from Netherbie to Castle O'er runs through the parish.


Ewes Water - click for larger image
Looking up the Ewes Water from just east of Langholm. The road to Hawick runs through this valley

Mr Pennant considered that Broomholm was on the site of an old British town in Roman times.
A Roman road runs from Netherbie into the parish, crosses the Esk above Broomholm and runs north-west towards Westerkirk parish as far as the camp at Castle O’er.
Fairs etc - There is a weekly market in the town and four annual fairs including a very large one for the sale of lambs.
Means of Communication - The roads and bridges here are in fine condition. The Edinburgh to Carlisle road passes through the town, on which the mail runs every day. Other roads lead to Annan, towards Eskdale, Canonbie and up Wauchopedale towards Lockerbie, Lochmaben and Dumfries. A coach runs on this road every second day.
A bridge was built over the Esk in 1780, connecting the old and new towns of Langholm. A very short distance north of this, there is a bridge on the post road over the Ewes, and another just south of Langholm. Besides these, there are three other bridges.
Fuel - Peat is obtained locally, and coal from Canonbie.

No specific mention of roads.
Coal brought from England by sea or by land some 30/40 miles.
Many "strollers and idle vagrants" pass through the country.

LochmabenRoads - The roads are now much improved. Although a road between Glasgow and Carlisle runs for ten miles through the parish, it is not used very much as people prefer the road from Beatock Inn to Lockerby.
Another fine road runs towards Dumfries on which there is a bridge over the Annan.
There is no mail coach but a stage-coach runs from Dumfries through here to Lockerby, Ecclefechan and Langholm. There had been a proposal to run the Dumfries mail through Lochmaben but the road trustees objected because a bridge and a length of new road would have had to be built. There is a daily post from Edinburgh via Dumfries.
Fuel - Peat is mostly used although coal from Cumberland is obtainable from Dumfries.

Many cattle bought by drovers and taken to England.
The statute labour is commuted.
The toll bar on the Glasgow - Carlisle road is let for £116 each year.

The nearest market town is Ecclefechan. The turnpike between London and Glasgow passes through the parish and is used by the mail coach and other traffic. The parish roads used to be practically impassable but within the last 20 years have been "improved to an incredible degree." Bridges are also in very good condition.
Peat is now almost worked out but coal is obtained from Canonbie, 12 miles away, and from Annan, 7 miles away, where coal from Cumberland is landed.

OSA - see also Roman road
MoffatThere is a weekly market.
The Roman road from the Esk to Stirling passes west of Moffat and is still visible.
Coal expensive as it is brought from Douglas and sometimes Sanquhar.
Six miles of the Glasgow to Carlisle road runs through the parish. There is a daily mail coach and two other coaches running each day. There are 70 cart loads of goods each week.
The Dumfries - Edinburgh road joins the Glasgow road at Moffat and leaves it at Erickstane Brae, 4 miles north of the town. It is not as busy as the Glasgow road and although a mail coach had been started up it no longer ran. Once the road is completely repaired it would probably be re-established. Both these roads are turnpikes.


Click for larger image
John Loudon McAdam is buried in Moffat

There is a weekly market.
There are very good roads between Glasgow and Carlisle and Dumfries and Edinburgh, also to Selkirk "by the lakes". There is another road by Hutton which branches to Eskdalemuir or to Dunnabie, but the Lochmaben road is not so good and a direct road to Closeburn is still needed.
There is a post office here but a post-conveyance to Lochmaben and Annan is needed. Generally the roads and bridges are good. Post horses and carriages can be hired at the main inn. There are frequent coaches.
Coal is brought from Douglas.







OSA - see also coal and lime etc

Thornhill Carronbridge

Agricultural surplus taken to Leadhills, Wanlockhead and Sanquhar. A number of local people bring lime from Closeburn and coal from Sanquhar which are taken to the limeworks or Dumfries. There are about 95 carts in the parish each of which can draw about 12 cwt.
There are two high roads which cross each other in Thornhill: the Dumfries to Ayrshire and Glasgow by Sanquhar and to Edinburgh by Leadhills was turnpiked last year and is well made; and a road into Galloway by Minnyhive (Moniave). The first road has bridges over the Carple and Carron; the other has a bridge over the Nith.
The by-roads are poor but with the new turnpike being supported by tolls, it is hoped that the conversion money can be applied to improving these roads.
There are two inns in Thornhill.

The high roads from Dumfries and from Galloway by Penpont and Minnihive to Glasgow and Edinburgh pass through Thornhill and separate at Carronbridge.
Coal comes from Sanquhar, 12 miles away. Peat is also used as fuel though supplies are dwindling.

Potatoes taken to Dumfries and also to sloops on the Solway coast, both about 6 miles distant.
Roads are excellent.
There were plenty of materials for making the Military road which runs south-east to north-west by the church and which was finished locally in 1776.
A new turnpike is nearly finished - this parallels much of the course of the Military road.
Between these two roads a road has recently been built from the church to Torthorwald using the conversion money.
There are plenty of bridges.

Many pigs are reared in this parish. As there is a ready market for them in England, farmers no longer sell their oats and potatoes in Dumfries but use them to feed the pigs.
Market town etc - Dumfries is the nearest market and post town.
Means of communication - These are excellent in all directions. Both turnpikes and parish roads are very good. The Carlisle to Portpatrick turnpike road, built by 1776, runs through the parish with a parish road leading in the same direction nearly parallel with it and another that goes to Torthorwald, allowing access to markets in Lochmaben and Lockerbie. It also leads to the lime works at Kelhead and to Annan and Ruthwell. Bridges have been built where required.
The parish roads are paid for by the statute labour commutation money.
The mail coach and several other coaches run on the turnpike.
Inns - There are two inns well used by the many travellers.
Fuel - Coal is brought from Cumberland to Dumfries.

There is an old bridge over the Scarr.
A bridge was carried away in 1783 when a "vast water spout" emptied into the Scarr.
An old Roman causeway runs through Tynron close to the Scarr.
Last summer a start was made on turnpike roads.
There is a toll near Sanquhar of 1½d on coal carts.
The statute labour is commuted.

Although the name is thought to mean "hanging bridge" it is more likely to be derived from the Celtic words ben or pen meaning high and pont a sharp crag or pointed hill. The bridge in question was about half a mile west of the village and was of some antiquity. In 1724 it was widened for carriages but was taken down in 1801 and replaced by a more convenient and substantial bridge.
Although some work is now being done, up until this year there were only 7 miles of made road. The eleven miles of turnpike however are in excellent condition, and the bridges are good, "except where the ledges have suffered through that wantonness said to be peculiar to Scotland."
Three hiring markets are held here. Thornhill is the nearest post office.

The high road from Dumfries to Annan used to pass through Ruthwell before the Military Road was made.
This now runs through the parish.
A new road was made last year between Annan and Dumfries about one mile north of the Military road. Tolls are payable on both roads.

Parochial Economy - There are two carriers in the village and a toll-bar keeper. The Dumfries to Annan and Carlisle toll road passes through and is in excellent condition. A heavy coach runs on it each day, and a runner who goes to Dumfries and Annan with letters and parcels. There is also a carrier who goes to these towns. Small vessels can land at the "debouche of the Lochar" and bring coal from Cumberland.
Fuel - The main fuel is peat from Lochar Moss with some coal coming from Cumberland.

St Mungo
The great turnpike between Carlisle and Glasgow runs through the east end of the parish. There is a bridge over the Milk.
Statute labour is commuted.
A bridge over the Annan is needed.

NSA ; see also p.216
Mention of Williamswath ford on the Annan.
The Glasgow and Manchester road passes through, replacing the old road. There are two bridges on these roads over the Water of Milk. The Glasgow mail coach passes through each day and sometimes a heavy coach.
To avoid a drain on the poor funds, those who would otherwise have required assistance are now employed on the parish roads. They are paid 2d below the normal rate to make the fund last longer. Poor women are also employed on the roads to gather stones and fill carts.
Since the last report, a bridge has been built over the Milk and the parish roads are much improved.

Sanquhar Post OfficeThe line of the Ayrshire road comes from Corsencon Hill and is steep and bad in places.
The Dumfries to Ayr road runs through Sanquhar. The late Duke of Queensberry made at least 22 miles of the road at a cost of 1500 L., and in addition the road to Corsincon where there is lime rock, at a cost of 300L. He also made a road along the Mennock to the county boundary, on the way to Edinburgh, and this cost 600L. These were praiseworthy examples of public spiritedness.
The statute labour was converted in 1777 at a rate of 12 s. per 100merks.
Toll bars have been erected on the Ayr road, and its line and gradients have been improved. Initially tolls were disliked but the economic advantages becoming obvious, these roads are now much approved of.
A new line of road has been suggested that would cut across to the Stewartry and Galloway, thus making journeys between Ireland and Edinburgh much shorter and easier.
There is a post office in Sanquhar. Many vagrants pass through the parish.



There is a coal depot in the town which is supplied from the Mansfield pits in New Cumnock, 11 miles away. Some 16,000 tons of coal are sold here each year.
Means of Communication - Two post-chaises and a car can be hired in Sanquhar. There is a post office which receives mail from New Cumnock and Thornhill each day. The two turnpikes in the parish run for a length of 12 miles, A Glasgow to Carlisle coach passes each day. Nine miles of the parish roads are good.
There are eight substantial bridges, six of which have been built in the last 12 years. One of the older bridges over the Nith is made of wood but is capable of carrying loaded carts.
Fairs - Although there are four fairs in Sanquhar, they are much fallen into disuse. Sheep and cattle markets have been recently established and are fairly well attended and may prove of benefit.
Fuel - Apart from some remote areas where peat is used, coal is the most common fuel.
Note: The post office (above) is the world's oldest, dating to the 1700's.
See map of postal routes near Sanquhar in 1802.

About 30 years ago it had been proposed to build a canal from the Solway to Locharbridge at the head of Lochar Moss.
Near the manse there is a narrow gut between two sandy hillocks, named Collyveat - there may have been an old ferry here.
The Roman road from Burnswark passes through the parishes of Drysdale, Lochmaben, the old parish of Trailflat, Amisfield House and ends at Dunscore.
The Edinburgh turnpike runs through this parish with a daily mail coach and a diligence up to three times weekly.
Other roads are very bad. There is however enough money for their repair.
Generally, people are in favour of the turnpikes.
Most farmers have two carts.

Antiquities - The Roman road from Burnswark by Trailflat passes through the parish.
Market-Towns The main town is Dumfries about 6 miles away although there are occasional markets at Lochmaben and Lockerby. The turnpike between Dumfries and Edinburgh runs for four miles through the parish - a mail coach uses it daily. The parish roads and bridges are in excellent condition.
Alehouses - The toll keepers maintain dram-shops and these "have the worst possible effect upon the morals of the people."
Fuel - Peat is used and some coal from Cumberland and Sanquhar.
The parish is constantly infested by swarms of Irish vagrants.

The statute labour has been converted at a rate of 12s. per 100 merks.
There is an excellent road of 5 or 6 miles from Scroggs to Debate.
Market towns are Lockerby, Dumfries and Annan. Black cattle are sold at the first two places and also for movement to England.

Antiquities - There is a Roman road in the north of the parish which heads north-west from Burnswark Hill towards Closeburn. The road is about eight feet wide, of broad flat stones with sand packed in between - it was covered with some nine inches of earth.
Parochial Economy - Lockerbie is the nearest market town. The parish does not require many roads. The main road, while well kept, has a bad line. A new road is proposed that will follow the line of the Milk.

About 1750 there were very few carts. Goods were carried on horseback or on trail cars. Carts are now used - there are 88 of these in the parish. Lime is obtained at Comlongan, 8 miles away.
The military road passes through - a toll bar was erected last year.
The turnpike from Dumfries to Lochmaben passes through the parish. The first tollbar in Nithsdale was erected in 1789.
Statute labour has been commuted.

Means of Communication - Dumfries is the local post town and the mail coach and another coach to England pass through daily. There is also a foot-post to Lochmaben. There are 7˝ miles of turnpike and 12 miles of good parish roads. The Macadam system of reparing and making roads with broken stones is used here.
Fuel - Peat from Lochar Moss is mostly used although coal from Cumberland is also available

An old Roman road runs from east to west along the face of the hills and even now is in many places uncovered by grass.
Roads have improved since the commutation of the statute labour.

NSA ; see also p.475 on Roman road
A Roman road runs from the Doon (of Tynron) to Drumloff, and crosses the Shinnel above Stenhouse.
Dumfries is the nearest market town. There is a daily postal service running between Thornhill and Moniave.
There is one mile of turnpike and 15 miles of parish roads which are maintained by statute labour funds. There are bridges in good condition at Ford, Tynron Kirk, Pingarrie and over the Scar near to the Shinnel.
Note: See John Shaw's Tynron Glen site for much interesting detail on roads and tracks in the locality, including the putative "Roman road"

The Glasgow Carlisle road runs through- it was made about 20 years ago. There is a mail coach daily in each direction.
There is a Roman road with a few large stones (5 ft high) still standing. They are one Scots mile apart and are thought to be milestones.

Antiquities - A Roman road appears to have run north for 4 or 5 miles through the parish. It is near the old turnpike road from Glasgow to Carlisle. There are a number of stones, some 5 or 6 feet in height, along the line of the road which have been thought to be Roman milestones.
Market Towns - The market towns are Moffat and Lockerby. Moffat is the post town.
Means of Communication - The most regular service by carriers is to Dumfries, although recently one has gone to Edinburgh once a fortnight. There are 7 or 8 miles of turnpike - mostly the old Glasgow to Carlisle road, and a road towards Langholm. Bridges and fences are in good condition.
Fuel - Peat is obtained from Johnstone and from a moss in the south of this parish.
Miscellaneous - some complain that the parish is too far from markets.

One of the standing stones

Note: It is now difficult to determine where these stones were. The 1861 6" map shows standing stones at Hangingshaw (NY103898 - bottom right on sheet XXXIII), Gateside Farm (NY113944 - top right on sheet XXXIII), above Newbigging (NY10779898 - right centre on sheet XXIV) and Poldean (NT10370001 - ditto).The first two are on or near the Roman road but the other two are about 400 metres east of the road. There is an earthwork half way between the first two stones which is on the Roman road which would approximate to a Scots mile (1984 yards) between each but without more information this is speculative. In addition the first stone and the earthwork are in Applegarth parish.

The RCAHMS however has the interesting information that the last stone at Poldean is said to have been erected to mark the spot where Prince Charles's troops bivouacked in 1745, and that the one above Newbigging (Chapman's Stone) marked a droving stance and the grave of a travelling horse trader. It also notes in connection with the second stone near Gateside Farm that there appears to have been a roughly hewn stone nearby with markings on it, though this stone cannot now be identified.

Agriculture has greatly improved with the use of carts and especially since 1775 when a bridge at Langholm gave access to lime kilns in Canonbie. There are 69 carts in the parish.
There are 16 stone bridges in the parish. These are mostly of small scale although the one near the church has 3 arches and was built by the county about 50 years ago.
There are 2 public roads, running along the north and south banks of the Esk for about 6 miles. These roads join about 2 miles west of the church and continue into Eskdalemuir on the north side of the Esk.
Although some of the bridges and all of the roads were built and are still maintained using the statute labour money, much has been done to improve the roads and bridges by Sir James Johnstone.
An antimony mine has been opened in Glendinning and there is an associated village called James Town on the Megget. The company has built an excellent road on the east side of the Megget to Waulk-mill. This is 3½ miles in length and has four bridges.

Many Roman encampments can be seen in the north-west of the parish and seem to have been out-stations of the Roman camp at Castle O’er. Others can be traced along the Esk and probably served as communication links between the camps of Castle O’er and Netherby, near Longtown.
Parochial Economy - The nearest market and post town is Langholm, 5 miles away. The roads are in good condition. No mail coach or other coach runs in the parish.
Fuel - Peat is commonly used, as well as coal from Canonbie.




































































































































































































































































































































Interesting Points

Annan: When replacing an old bridge in 1824, a wooden temporary one was erected.

Applegarth: A light-mail coach travels through the parish at 11 mph.

Caerlaverock: At very low tides it is possible to walk across the Nith to New Abbey

Dumfries: There is an interesting mileage panel from 1828 on the Town House in Dumfries showing the distance to Huntington, at that time a centre of the droving trade.

Dunscore: There is a coal depot at Allanton, supplied from Sanquhar.

Eskdalemuir: Before 1800, sheep used to be taken down to Annandale in severe winters.

Hutton & Corrie: The parish is much oppressed by the vagrant poor.

Mousewald: Potatoes taken to sloops on the Solway coast, 6 miles away.

Penpont: The ledges of the bridges have suffered from "that wantonness said to be peculiar to Scotland."

St Mungo: The poor are employed on the parish roads and are paid 2d below the normal rate to make the fund last longer. Poor women are also employed on the roads to gather stones and fill carts.

Tinwald: About 1760 a canal from the Solway to Locharbridge at the head of Lochar Moss was proposed.
Swarms of Irish vagrants infest the parish.

Tynron: A Roman road runs from the Doon (of Tynron) to Drumloff, and crosses the Shinnel above Stenhouse.

Wamphray: There are thought to be Roman milestones in the parish.