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Resources on Old Scottish Roads
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Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries in Scotland

A contemporary account of the Earl of Hertford's second expedition to Scotland, and of the Ravages committed by the English Forces in September 1545, David Laing, PSAS, Vol 1, (1851-54) pps 271-81


  1. Notes on the "Roman" Roads of the One-inch Ordnance Map of Scotland, The Ayrshire Road, James MacDonald, PSAS, vol.27, (1892-1893), pp. 417-43
  2. Notes on the "Roman" Roads of the One-inch Ordnance Map of Scotland, Preliminary Remarks, James MacDonald, PSAS, vol.28, (1893-94), pp.20-57
  3. Notes on the "Roman" Roads of the One-inch Ordnance Map of Scotland, The Dumfresshire Roads, James MacDonald, PSAS, vol.28, (1893-94), pp.298-320
  4. Notes on the 'Roman Roads' of the One-Inch Ordnance Map of Scotland, The Roxburghshire Roads, James MacDonald, PSAS, Vol. 29, (1894-95), 317-28

Note on the Antiquity of the Wheel Causeway, Haverfield, F, PSAS, Vol. 34 (1899-1900), 129-30


Military Roads and Fortifications in the Highlands with bridges and milestones, Thomas Wallace, PSAS, Vol 45, (1910-1911), pps 318-333


The Ancient Bridges in Scotland, and their relation to the Roman and Mediaeval bridges in Europe, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS, Vol 46 (1911-12), pp 151-177


Fords, Ferries, Floats and Bridges near Lanark, Thomas Reid, PSAS, Vol 47, (1912-13), pps 209-256


The Roads and Bridges in the Early History of Scotland, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS, Vol 47, (1912-13), pp303-33


The Most Ancient Bridges in Britain, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS, Vol.49, (1914-15), pps 256-74


The Roads that led to Edinburgh etc, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS, Vol. 50, (1915-16), pps 18-49


Ancient Border Highways: The Minchmoor (Catrail) Road, the Wheel Causeway, the Annandale Forest Road, the Well Path, and the Enterkin, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS, Vol. 58 (1923-24), pps 203-23


A New Roman Mountain Road in Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshire, I A Richmond, PSAS, Vol 80 (1945-46), pps 104-117

The Roman Road to Raeburnfoot, A Graham, PSAS, Vol 82, (1947-48), pps 231-234


Quarry to Abbey: an Ancient Fife Route, R Fyfe Smith and Rev. Norman M Johnston. PSAS, Vol 83 (1948-49), pps 162-167


An Old Road in the Lammermuirs, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol 83, (1948-49), pps 198-206


Roman communications in the Tweed Valley, Graham, A & Richmond, I A., PSAS, Vol.87, (1952-53), 63-71


More Old Roads in the Lammermuirs, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol. 93 (1959-60), pps 217-35


Archaeology on a Great Post Road, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol. 96 (1962-63), pps 318-47


The Military Road from Braemar to the Spittal of Glen Shee, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol.97, (1963-64), pps 226-236


Milestones and Wayside Markers in Fife, Walter M Stephen, PSAS, Vol 100 (1967-68), pp 179-184


The Scottish campaigns of Septimus Severus, Nicholas Reed, PSAS, Vol 107, (1975-76), pps 92-102


Roads and bridges in the Scottish Highlands: the route between Dunkeld and Inverness, 1725 -1925, G R Curtis, PSAS, Vol 110, (1978-80), pps 475-96


Two Roman Inscribed Stones and Architectural Fragments from Scotland (Ingliston Milestone, Inveresk Altar), G S Maxwell, PSAS, Vol 113, (1983), pps 379-390


The Scottish Itinerary of Mary Queen of Scots, 1542-8 and 1561-8, Edward M Furgol, PSAS, Vol.117, (1987), pps 219-231


"Here Chapman Billies Tak Their Stand": a pilot study of Scottish chapmen, packsmen and peddlars, Roger Leitch, PSAS, Vol 120 (1990), pps 173-188


A Walk along the Antonine Wall in 1825: the travel journal of the Rev. John Skinner, Lawrence Keppie, PSAS, Vol 133 (2003), pps 205-244


Improving the roads and bridges of the Stirling area c 1660-1706, John G Harrison, PSAS, Vol 135 (2005), pps 287-307.


The following author has numerous papers in the PSAS on castles in Scotland, mostly in the north-east. The papers selected below contain some reference to the siting of a castle in relation to early routes. The most comprehensive treatment of routes is in

"The Early Castles of Mar", Vol 63, "Corgarff Castle", Vol 61 and "Edzell Castle", Vol 65.


Simpson, W Douglas Note on Recent Excavations at Kildrummy Castle.Vol 54 (1919-1920) 134-45

Simpson, W Douglas The Architectural History of Huntly Castle. Vol 56 (1921-22) 134-63

Simpson, W Douglas The Royal Castle of Kindrochit in Mar.Vol 57 (1922-23), 75-97

Simpson, W Douglas The Development of Balvenie Castle. PSAS Vol 60 (1925-26), 132-48

Simpson, W Douglas Corgarff Castle, Aberdeenshire. PSAS Vol 61 (1926-27), 48-103

Simpson, W Douglas The Early Castles of Mar. (First Paper.) PSAS, Vol 63 (1928-29), 102-38

Simpson, W Douglas Edzell Castle. PSAS, Vol 65 (1930-31),115-7

Simpson, W Douglas Invermark Castle. PSAS, Vol 68 (1933-34), 41-50

Simpson, W Douglas The Barony, Castle, and Church of Rothiemay.PSAS Vol 69 (1934-35), 223-46

Simpson, W Douglas Fyvie Castle PSAS Vol 73 (1938-39), 32-47

Simpson, W Douglas Cairnbulg Castle, Aberdeenshire PSAS Vol 83 (1948-49)32-44

Simpson, W Douglas Glenbervie and its castle PSAS Vol 105 (1972-74), 255-61


Ayrshire Archaeological and Natural History Society

James P Wilson, The Monk's Road to their Lands, AANHS Collections, 2nd Series, Vol 1, 1950

Field Study Group Report, AANHS Collections, 2nd Series, Vol 3, 1955, p30-33

Clarke and Wilson, A Possible Roman Road between the Rivers Cessnock and Ayr, AANHS Collections, 2nd Series, Vol.5, 1959

Lebon, The Beginnings of the Agrarian and Industrial Revolutions in Ayrshire, AANHS Collections, 2nd Series, Vol.5, 1959

A Wilson, Roads in Upper Nithsdale and Beyond, AANHS Collections, 2nd Series, Vol.5, 1959

A.L.Taylor, The Braw New Coat - The Building of Ayr New Brig, AANHS Collections, 2nd Series, 1961

Hendry and Strawhorn, An Old Road in Loudoun Parish, AANHS Collections, 2nd Series, Vol.6, 1961


David McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, Ayrshire Monographs No.13, AANHS, 1994


Dumfries and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society (some papers are now online - see here)

The Roman Road in Annandale, Johnstone, J.T., II 9 85

Roman Roads in Britain, Chinnock, E.J. II 15 55

Natural Determinants of Routes in Lower Nithsdale, Ballantyne, J.D., III 11 10

Notes on Roman Road through Annandale, Robertson, J., III 24 10

Excavations in Dumfriesshire, 1946, St Joseph, J.K., III 24 150

Further Notes on Old Roadways in Dumfriesshire, Robertson, J., III 25 6

The Military Road.To Portpatrick, 1763 Arnott, M.C., III 28 120

Upper Nithsdale and Westward in Roman Times, Clarke, J., III 30 111

Roman Roads in S-W Scotland.

(1) At Glenlochar, Crawford, O.G.S., III 31 22

(2) From Nith to Dee, Inglis, J.A., III 31 25

(3) The Tweedsmuir Road, Bailey, H., III 31 27

(4) From Castledykes (Corbiehall) to Crawford, Radford, C.A.R., Reid, R.C., and Truckell, A.E., III 31 30

The Drove Road into Annandale. Prevost, W.A.J., III 31 121

Notes on Roman Roads, Reid, R.C., III 32 73

Erickstane Brae, Prevost, W.A.J., III 37 111

More Notes on Roman Roads, Reid, R.C., III 37 123

Roads in Ayrshire, Reid, R.C., III 37 132

The Road into Ayrshire - A possible Roman Road between the Rivers Cessnock and Ayr: Clarke, J. and Wilson, A., III 37 143

The Road into Ayrshire. - Fortlet at Bankhead, Kirkconnel Clarke, J.- and Wilson, A., III 37 136

The Road into Ayrshire. - Roads in Upper Nithsdale and Beyond Clarke, J. and Wilson, A. III 37 151

Development of the Road System in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 1580-1890 Part I Anderson, A.D., III 44 205

Development of the Road System in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 1580-1890 Part II Anderson, A.D., III 45 211

Wanlockhead Roads - Minutes of Fourth (Upper Nithsdale) District Turnpike Road Trustees 5/8/1789 to abolition of tolls, Robertson, J., III 54 161

Roman Road near Moffat - Observations during gas pipeline construction, Yates, M.J., III 58 95

Roman Penetration in West Dumfries and Galloway, Allan Wilson, III, 64, 7

The Carlisle to Glasgow Road, Miller, N. and Miller M., III 65 100

Improvement to the Glasgow-Carlisle Road. 1815, Miller, N. and Miller M., III 67 67

Some Notes on the Old Military Road in Dumfries and Galloway, Anderson, A.D., III 72 79

Roman Penetration in E Dumfriesshire and Beyond, Allan Wilson, III, 73, 17
The Building of Auldgirth Bridge, G W Shirley, III, 23, 71

Bridgend Bridge, Dundrennan – A Monastic Structure?, Alex Anderson and James Williams, III, 81, 71
Kirk Sessions as Bridge Builders - Lochfoot & Twynholm, Alex Anderson & James Williams, Third Series, Vol. LXXXIII, 2009
The Old Edinburgh Road in Dumfriesshire and Galloway, A D Anderson, Third Series, Vol.LXXXIV (2010), 101


Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness

Ross, Alexander, 'Old Highland Roads', Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness 14 (1887-88) 172-193

MacTavish, Duncan C, 'Argyllshire Roads Prior to 1800' TGSI 38 (1937-41) 325-355

Kerr, John, 'Old Grampian Ways' TGSI 49 (1974-76) 53-86

MacDonald, Mairi A, 'Drovering' TGSI 49 (1974-76) 189-197
Kerr, John, 'Old Roads to Strathardle' TGSI 51, also reprint 1981

Martin, Whittet 'Over the Hills and Not So Far Away' TGSI 56 (1988-90) 344-381

MacDonald Murdo, 'The Droving Trade in the Records of the Commissioners of Supply of Argyllshire' TGSI 58 (1992-94) 1-7


A Roman Frontier Post and Its People: The Fort of Newstead in the Parish of Melrose By James Curle. Section on Roman road

Annals of the Solway Until A.D. 1307 George Neilson

The Roman Gask Project: Final Report on Roman Road excavations at Parkneuk

A Possible Roman Road Cutting at Innerpeffray Library Perthshire. D.J.Woolliscroft, with contribution by B.Hoffmann.

The Life of Thomas Telford by Samuel Smiles, London, 1867

The construction of Aberdeenshire's first turnpike roads, Thomas Day, Journal of Transport History, Sep 2003 - (article page numbers are at foot of web page)

Study of roads and tracks in Caithness, George Watson

Peebles and Selkirk: Communications Past and Present

Some details of roads in the Moffat area


See also the following for details of Thomas Telford and roads and bridges built by him in this area as well as studies of roads around Moffat and the Carlisle to Edinburgh road.


The Roads that led by Prestoungrange, Andrew Ralton, Prestoungrange University Press, Haddington 2005 - see no.19 on page

Comprehensive study of roads in the vicinity of Haddington and elsewhere in East Lothian.


The Roman Occupation of South-Western Scotland, edited S N Miller, Glasgow, 1952

Scotland's Roman Remains, Lawrence Keppie, John Donald Publishers, 1986

Roman penetration in Strathclyde south of the Antonine Wall, Part One: The Topographical Framework, Allan Wilson, Glasgow Archaeological Journal Vol.19, 1994-95; Part Two: Romanisation, Vol. 20, Page 1-40, 1996-97

Ferries in Scotland, Marie Weir, John Donald, 1988

The Drove Roads of Scotland, A. R.B. Haldane, David and Charles, 1973

New Ways through the Glens, A.R.B. Haldane, Nelson, 1962

The Military Roads in Scotland, William Taylor, David and Charles, Newton Abbot, 1976

Maxwell, G.S., ‘The Evidence from the Roman Period’ in Loads and Roads in Scotland and Beyond, ed. A.Fenton & G.Stell, Edinburgh 1984 (John Donald), 22-48.

Barrow, G. W. S., 1984, 'Land Routes: The Medieval Evidence', in Loads and Roads in Scotland and Beyond, ed. A.Fenton & G.Stell, 49-66, Edinburgh 1984 (John Donald), [also in Barrow 1992, Scotland and its Neighbours in the Middle Ages (London), 201-16, entitled ‘Land Routes’].

Ted Ruddock, Bridges and Roads in Scotland:1400 - 1750, in Loads and Roads in Scotland and Beyond, ed. A.Fenton & G.Stell, Edinburgh 1984 (John Donald), 78-91

Border Highways, John James Mackay, 1998

The Roads of Mediaeval Lauderdale, R.P.Hardie, Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 1942

To Move With the Times, The Story of Transport and Travel in Scotland, Anne Gordon, Aberdeen University Press, 1988

MacFarlane's Geographical Collections, Scot Hist Socy, 1906 - see here for summaries and links

Wade in Scotland, Edinburgh and London, J B Salmond, The Moray Press, 1934

A Walker's Companion to the Wade Roads, Joan and Arthur Baker, Perth: The Melven Press, 1982

The Public Roads and Bridges in Dumfriesshire 1650 - 1820, James Robertson, G.C. Book Publishers, Wigton, 1993

The Shielings and Drove Ways of Loch Lomondside, John Mitchell, Jamieson & Munro in assoc. with Stirling Council Library, 2000
The Loch Lomondside Military Road, James Chirrey, Dumbarton District Libraries, 1984
Drymen and District by Road, John Mitchell, Drymen and District Local History Society, 2002 (revised 2004)

Reminiscences of Road Maintenance, parts 1 & 2, William Ballantine, Calatria Nos 12 and 13, Journal of the Falkirk Local History Society

Travelling through Time, Transport in Falkirk District, Falkirk District Council 1993

Drove Roads, John Reid, Calatria, No 22, Autumn 2005, Journal of the Falkirk Local History Society

Law of Roads, Streets and Rights of Way, Bridges, and Ferries in Scotland, James Ferguson, William Green & Sons, Edinburgh, 1904

Local Government in Scotland, W E Whyte, Hodge & Co, 1936

The Old Deeside Road (Aberdeen to Braemar): Its Course, History and Associations, G M Fraser, publ. 1983 by Robin V Callander, Haughend, Finzean, Aberdeenshire

Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, edited by Peter G B McNeill and Hector L MacQueen, Edinburgh: The Scottish Medievalists and Department of Geography, University of Edinburgh, 1996. The Atlas contains maps with explanatory text for many aspects of Scottish history. Maps of interest include Roman roads, placename distribution, royal itineraries, monastic foundations, churches and many others. Now available on Scotlands Places website.

Bridging the Dee at Kirkcudbright, T.R.Collin, Stewartry Museum, Kirkcudbright, 1981

Early Travellers in Scotland, Hume Brown, James Thin, Edinburgh, 1978 - see also digitised version on Internet Archive

The Mounth Passes over the Grampians, Fraser, G.M., Scottish Geographical Magazine, 36 (1920), 116-122 & 169-180

Fraser, G.M., The Bridge of Dee (Aberdeen, 1913)
Walking the Scottish Highlands: General Wade's Military Roads, Michael Pollard & Tom Ang, Andre Deutsch, London, 1984
Highland Highways: Old Roads in Atholl, John Kerr, John Donald, Edinburgh 1991

Grampian Ways, Robert Smith, John Donald, Edinburgh 2002
The Mounth Passes: A Heritage Guide to the Old Ways Through the Grampian Mountains. Nate Pedersen and Neil Ramsay, with photographs by Graham Marr. This is an eBook and is a compilation of a series of articles the authors wrote for Leopard magazine in Scotland between 2011 and 2012. Published: January 2014. The British version is available here.

The Causey Mounth: A mediaeval route between Stonehaven and Aberdeen
Road Administration in Midlothian in the Early Eighteenth Century, R G Heddle, The Book of the Old Edinburgh Club, Vol.XXXIV, Part 3, 1983, 105-119
The Road North, Ronald Miller, Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol.83, No.2 SDept. 1967, pps78-88

Highland Bridges, Gillian Nelson, West Port Books, Edinburgh 2006 (2nd.edition); also Aberdeen University Press 1990

The Romans in Perthshire, David Woolliscroft and Birgitta Hoffman, 2005, Perth & Kinross Heritage Trust and The Roman Gask Project

The Hebridean Traveller, Denis Rixon, Birlinn, Edinburgh, 2004 - chapter 11 on roads
The Ancient Bridge of Stirling: Investigations 1988-2000, Ronald Page, Scottish Archaeological Journal. EUP, Vol 23 pt.2 (Sept 2001)
A Prehistoric Ford near Rough Castle, Falkirk, Janice Hamilton, Ciara Clarke, Andrew Dunwell & Richard Tipping, Scottish Archaeological Journal. EUP, Vol 23 pt.2 (Sept 2001)

The roads of Scotland: From statute labour to tolls - the first phase, 1700 to 1775, Owen Silver Scottish Geographical Journal, Volume 103, Issue 3, 1987, 141 – 149
The roads of Scotland. I. Roman roads, Horace Fairhurst, Scottish Geographical Journal, Volume 71, Issue 2, 1955, 77 – 82
The roads of Scotland II. Statute labour roads : The second phase Donald G. Moir Scottish Geographical Journal, Volume 73, Issue 3, 1957, 167 – 175
The roads of Scotland II. Statute labour roads : The first phase Donald G. Moir Scottish Geographical Journal, Volume 73, Issue 2, 1957, 101 – 110
Road development in North-east Scotland 1746-1815 - the maritime connection, James McIntosh; Alan Small, Scottish Geographical Journal, Volume 111, Issue 3, 1995, 159 – 167
General Wade and his military roads in the highlands of Scotland, John Mathieson, Scottish Geographical Journal, Volume 40, Issue 4, 1924, Pages 193 – 213

Roads and Bridges of Lanarkshire, Col. T.U.Wilson, County Surveyor, Lanark County Council, 1951

A history of the border counties: Roxburgh, Selkirk, Peebles, Sir George Douglas, Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1899

Pages 4-6 on Roman roads and the Wheel Causeway

Reports of the Commission on Highland Roads and Bridges

Old Tracks - Cross-country Routes and "Coffin Roads" in the North West Highlands, A E Robertson - on Am Baile website

1776 - Taylor and Skinner - Road Map of Kintyre Road - including Droving and Coach Notes - see Scribd site for article and further details

1792 - Taylor and Skinner - Road Atlas of Scotland - attractive coloured version of the Taylor & Skinner road maps - see Scribd site for further details

Minutes of the Road Trustees of the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright : A Classified Summary, compiled by Alex. D Anderson.
Copies deposited in the Archive Centre and Ewart Library, Dumfries and in the Stewartry Museum, Kirkcudbright.

Summary of Items relating to Roads in the Minutes of the Commissioners of Supply of the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, compiled by Alex. D Anderson

Copies deposited in the Archive Centre and Ewart Library, Dumfries and in the Stewartry Museum, Kirkcudbright.

The third widening of Fleet Bridge, Gatehouse 1964-65, Alex D Anderson, Journal of the Institution of Municipal Engineers, Vol. 96, September 1969, 262-266
The Great Road between Forth and Tay, G P Bennett, Markinch Printing Company
A Heritage of Bridges between Edinburgh, Kelso and Berwick, R Paxton & T Ruddock, Institution of Civil Engineers, Edinburgh
Dunkeld, Telford's Finest Highland Bridge, Christopher R Ford, Perth & Kinross Libraries 2004
Lost Argyll: Argyll's Lost Heritage, Marian Pallister, Birlinn, 2005
'Constructing the Military Landscape: Board of Ordnance Maps and Plans of Scotland 1689 to 1815', Carolyn J. Anderson.
The Forth Naturalist and Historian - contains several papers on roads, bridges and transport


National Library of Scotland

Online copies of maps

Searchable database of Scottish material in print - search for bridges or roads

The Newman Collection - books and papers relating to roads

(search for Newman, enter Shelfmark for Search Type)
Those with an address in Scotland can register with the NLS for a readers card that will give them online access to many digital resources.

The Military Survey maps are available on the National Library of Scotland website where they can be viewed free of charge. The maps are supported with detailed information on the Military Survey. Copies may also be found in large public libraries.

For the Military Survey roads in the Highlands, see the roysroads website where the roads have been overlaid onto modern maps. The site also contains much useful information about Roy and the Military Survey.

Genmaps site with useful images of old maps


Statistical Accounts of Scotland

The Old and New Statistical Accounts of Scotland were written in the 1790'and 1830's respectively by Local Ministers. Each entry provides a contemporary account of individual parishes and offers a fascinating insight into many aspects of society at the time. Both Accounts offer descriptions of roads and bridges in the parish and often have comments on their administration along with details of transport. The Accounts can be viewed online at the EDINA site by visiting the non-subscribers section at http://edina.ac.uk/stat-acc-scot/. The Accounts can also be accessed at Googlebooks - a search facility is provided. The printed volumes may be found in large public libraries, local history centres etc.

The Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
The RCAHMS has published a number of county inventories of sites of archaeological, architectural and historical significance and these can include accounts of roads and bridges. The reports are out of print but may be available in large public libraries.

They are also available to view free-of-charge at the ScotlandsPlaces website.

The RCAHMS site also acts as a portal to the CANMORE and PASTMAP databases. CANMORE gives details of specific monuments including roads and bridges and PASTMAP shows their positions on maps and allows viewers to highlight sites and view their associated CANMORE records.

There are numerous books aimed at hikers which will often help to identify the routes taken by old paths and roads through the hills though historical details are rarely given. Copies of these books will easily be obtained in public libraries or in second-hand bookshops.

It will also be worth checking leaflets published by local authorities to promote walking as these will indicate routes, parking places, cafes etc. and often include old roads in their itineraries. A number of local authorities may have these leaflets on their websites (see Leisure and Heritage Paths page for links).