and Tracks of Ayrshire
Back (The Pre-turnpikes)
the latter half of the 18th century, massive changes
in the economy of Scotland led to major improvements
in the life of the people. The new enclosures and better
farming methods along with the exploitation of mineral
resources and the development of industry resulted in
a growth of population and better health and living
conditions. The Act of Union in 1707 had a crucial part
in this as it opened up the large markets of England
roads were an essential part of this revolution, helping
to stimulate all aspects of the economy and opening
new horizons to people by making travel much easier
than before. The system which allowed these new roads
to be built was the turnpike system, tolls being levied
to meet the considerable cost of building them.
looking at this system in detail it is worth reminding
ourselves of what Ayrshire looked like in the early
1700's and how it had changed over the next 50 years
or so. It was a bleak and desolate landscape, almost
treeless, with mean hamlets surrounded by a few rough
fields and connected by poor tracks. The people were
poor and had a hard life, especially in winter when
food was scarce. By 1800, however, the landscape had
an ordered cultivated look. There were now trees and
regular fields with good crops, and the cottages had
improved. Towns were thriving and trade had picked up
because of the new
system which led to these new roads was realistic in
the circumstances of the time. For 200 years there had
been legislation and a system for road building which
had failed, or at least did not encourage economic growth.
There had also been an understandable reluctance to
provide roads which strangers could use (and damage)
without charge. The turnpike system met these difficulties:
capital could be raised, competent road builders could
be employed and most importantly, the cost of building
and maintaining the roads would be met by the collection
build a turnpike, an Act of Parliament was required
and once passed, allowed a trust to be formed which
could then arrange for the roads to be built. Of the
hundreds of Acts across the United Kingdom, two in particular
applied to Ayrshire. The first Act, that of 1766, had
in fact first been proposed in 1758. It dealt with 22
roads, mostly north of the Ayr - Cumnock line The second
Act was in 1774 and dealt with the southern part of
the county. There were further Acts in 1805, 1809, 1818,
1827 and 1847. The 1805 Act added a further 35 roads
and that of 1818 added roads in central and south
Besides these local Acts, there were more general Acts
that laid down regulations on different aspects of turnpikes
and would apply to local Acts at the time. Thus, there
were Acts in 1758, 1823 and 1831. The 1831 General Turnpike
Act dealt comprehensively with the whole system, from
the operation of a trust to exemptions from tolls
the 1766 Act
was passed, a Trust was formed. Records of this Trust
are extant and an idea can be gained from these of how
the Act was implemented, and how the roads were administered.
To be a trustee, a person had to have, either in his
own right, or in the right of his wife, estate valued
at 800 Pounds or to receive an annual income of 40 Pounds
from land. The later 1774 Act (8)
gave the trustees power to borrow
money for road making.
Act dealt with 24 roads with a total of 255 miles. It
named the trustees of whom there were 135, set tolls
and penalties for evading these, permitted the raising
of capital and the conversion of the statute labour
into a financial payment. It also allowed milestones
to be erected and dealt with the management of the trust.
were funded in three ways:
- by using the conversion money from statute labour
- by subscription where the lender could get interest
on the loan or a proportion of the toll
by a person making it at their own expense and getting
a proportion of the conversion money from each parish
through which the road ran.
was always intended that the toll system would be temporary;
tolls could be removed once all finances had been repaid
and the roads were in good condition. This of course
never happened. It was always a risky business getting
involved in financing roads or as a tradesman building
them. McClure gives examples of long delays in payment.
first meeting was held in Ayr on 14 July 1767 with 17
trustees in attendance.(10)
A surveyor was appointed - David Lambert Gardener of
Kilmarnock, and a sub-committee was set up to look at
a road from Kilmarnock to Ayr and what it might cost.
The Surveyor had considerable responsibilities, viz:
-to view all roads, common highways, tunnels, causeways
-to arrange compensation for land
make payments and account for these to the Trustees
account to the Justices for any neglect
-to obtain necessary materials -to organise statue labour
-to serve notice on any who created a nuisance.
next meeting on 20 August 1767 was attended by 35 people
and the Earl of Loudoun was chosen as President. As
the sub-committee from the last meeting had not agreed
on a route, a new sub-committee was formed and it was
agreed that the new road should be 30 feet broad and
16 inches thick.
were also set up to look at the 24 routes approved by
the Act. There were 21 committees in total. The routes
as listed were:
1. Ayr to Irvine. 2. Ayr to Kilmarnock. 3. Irvine by
Stewarton towards Pollockstoun. 4. Irvine to Saltcoats.
5. Irvine to Kilmarnock. 6. Kilmarnock by Kilmaurs to
Stewarton. 7. Stewarton to Whitehouse. 8. Stewarton
to Pollockstoun via Neilston. 9. Ayr by Ochiltree, Old
and New Cumnock towards Sanquhar. 10. Ayr by Galston
towards Strathaven. 11. Astonpapple east of Newmilns
to Overmuir. 12. Ayr by Mauchline, Sorn and Muirkirk
towards Douglas. 13. Mauchline to Galston. 14. Kilmarnock
to Galston. 15. Waterside of Loudoun towards Kingswell.
16. Kilmarnock by Kingswell to Flockbridge and 17. from
the march of the shire towards Eaglesham to where it
joins the road leading from Kingswell to Flockbridge.
18. Kilmarnock by Mauchline to Old Cumnock. 19. Galston
by Sorn to Old Cumnock. 20. Kilwinning by Dalry and
Bieth(stet) to Clarksbridge. 21. Dalry to Maichbridge
. 22. Kilwinning by Bieth to Caldstream bridge. 23.
Saltcoats by Largs to Kellybridge. 24. Irvine by Stair
Bridge to Dalmellington.
two records remain from these committees: Kilmarnock
to Mauchline and Old Cumnock; and Irvine by Stewarton
to Polloktoun, Irvine to Saltcoats and Irvine to Kilmarnock.
the 13th October 1767, reports were made on possible
routes between Kilmarnock and Ayr. "The Committee having
met at Kilmarnock on the day appointed did perambulate
the ground from Kilmarnock in the nearest and most predictable
way for a Turnpike Road having with them the person
employed to survey and measure the same. Also the Road
by way of Munktoun going betwixt Symington and Helentounhills
and from thence by way of Spittalhill to Riccarton;
and also to measure the road from Ayr by way of Adamtoun
Underwood Craigie Mains Hairlaw and from thence to Riccarton."
It was noted that surveyors had been ordered to measure
exactly these lines of road but their figures were very
erroneous. The Committee had then approached a Mr John
Foulis to do this work but there had been a delay as
he had thought it was not practicable until "the Corns
were got off the ground." They now had measurements
which subject to a final check were 9 miles, 4 furlongs
and 27 falls for the road through "Wallacestreet by
Adamtoun Underwood Craigie Mains Hairlaw East of Treesbank
A route by "Pow Bridge from thence in the present road
to Muncktoun striking off by the middle of that town
to the West of the Dovecoat to the north end of the
Rosemount inclosure near the present road, thence through
Helentoun park by the east end of Symingtoun enclosures
to Spittlehill and thence to Riccarton" measured out
at 9 miles, 3 furlongs and 13 falls. Another possible
route through "Prestwick Moss and Orangefields Pillarfield
to the east edge of Helentoun hill and from thence to
Riccarton" was 9 miles, 2 furlongs and 30 falls. The
roads would have been about 23-26 feet wide although
30 feet was the recommended width from 1771 onwards.
They were made of broken whinstone and gravel to a depth
of 12 to 18 inches.
28 October 1767, they looked at the above lines of road
between Ayr and Kilmarnock and it is interesting to
see the thought processes followed in making their choice
of the best route. These were: The first of the above
routes, viz. Present road by Munkton, Symington and
the ford near Caprington to Kilmarnock 11 miles. The
suggestion was to alter this road by avoiding the "crooks"
and run straight to the ford near the Blind Coal Ford
and by Lord Glencairn's House and Langlands yeard dike.
It would then go via Strand or Croft Street to Kilmarnock
Cross. This line would be 9 miles, 3 furlongs and 2
falls. The minute states that "from Riccarton Bridge
to Kilmarnock the road will go near in a straight line
to the end of the Sand Bed, along which by the Bridge
of Kilmarnock the Way is narrow, dangerous and difficult
of access into the Town, especially for carriages and
to make it safe will cost near £200. A Way is therefore
proposed through a street behind the Sandbed, and by
a Bridge to be built over the Water of Kilmarnock in
a line with a passage into the Cross." It says that
some houses would have to be demolished due to the narrowness
and crookedness of the streets.
This option was thought unfeasible. The "pulls" were
greater, a bridge at Blindcoalford would cost as much
as option 3, and there would be difficulty laying the
road once the River Irvine had been crossed. The existing
road they were looking at would have been the one shown
on Roy that went through Symington.
The second route, viz. Wallace Street - Newton Common
- south-east of Prestwick - Orangefields Pillar Park
- south east of Adamtoun Underwood - Craigie Mains -
Hairlaw - east of Treesbank Planting - Riccartoun. This
was seriously considered as there was an existing road
along almost all its length and it was similar in length
to the above two proposals with similar "pulls". There
would be some expense in the Prestwick stretch. As to
what the existing road was, there used to be a road
to the south east of Prestwick that ran where the airport
is now. It joined the road at Brierside east of Monkton.
A mile or so north east of this, the minor road that
runs from Low Wardneuk past Underwood to Craigie Mains
would fit the description.
here there might have had to be a new stretch up to
Harelaw but beyond here it may have been intended to
join the Craigie road that ran past Treesbank into Riccarton.
The third of the above routes, viz. Wallace Street -
south east of Prestwick - Powburn Bridge - present road
to Munktoun - north end of Rosemount Inclosures adjoining
the present high road leaving the Dovecoats Hill of
Monktoun on the south east and from the end of Rosemount
inclosures to the south east of the plantings of Symington,
avoiding the rising ground there - Spittlehill - Riccarton
9 miles 3 furlongs 13 roods. The Committee chose this
option because the existing road could in part be made
up or exchanged. Fewer bridges would be required; and
there would be no need for a raised road over meadowland.
This must be the older A77 line that ran through Monkton
and left the present road at Spittalhill to run directly
fourth route, viz. Wallace Street - Newton Common -
south-east of Prestwick - Orangefields Pillar Park -
Kalmares Mount plantation - east of Helentoun Hill -
the Single Tree - Riccartoun 9 miles 5 furlongs 30 roods
Scots. They rejected this option because some of the
land required was too costly, a number of bridges would
have to be built, and there was marshy land near Prestwick
where the landowner might not permit a deviation to
avoid this. There was also no road near to this proposed
route, which could be exchanged for the necessary land.
It is not clear if the first part of this route is the
same as the second route above where no mention was
made of the marshy land near Prestwick. Beyond Orangefields
(just south-east of Monkton and now part of the airport)
it would probably have run a few hundred metres east
of the present A77 line.
the same meeting they looked at the route between Riccarton
and Galston as well as the Ayr to Ochiltree and Old
and New Cumnock roads. With regard to the Ayr to Ochiltree
route there was an existing road from Byreburn to Ochiltree
by Gibston and Hoodston and a new road from Waggonford
through the lower part of Drongan Laigh Park to the
height of Trabbochmine. They arranged to inspect the
Hoodston road, the road through Tarelgin park and the
road by Waggonford and report back on costs. On 1 October
1767, they mention that a line of road would be marked
out by stobbing out or hammering stakes into the ground.
"They caused stob out the Road from the foord in the
Bryerburn by the Waggon foord …to the corner of the
Earl of Glencairn's Plantation where the Line met the
Line from the Bryerburn by the New Bridge of Milm and
that the one measures 5 miles, 3 furlongs, 24 falls
and 12 links." They also checked for suitable materials
nearby, and that horses could cope with the hills.
26 October 1767, they thought the road by the new bridge
of Milm and Hoodston was too expensive. The road by
Tarelgin was preferable as it avoided a "pull" - a bridge
would be built a few falls above the Waggonford. Those
present agreed to provide land free of charge when the
road went through their property.
There is an entry giving the cost of a road from Ayr
to Mauchline as £80 per mile. An entry on 12 November
1767 dealt with the Priestland Road. "It should go much
about the present direction from the Bounds of the Shire
to the Water of Cessnock except from Gorsebraehead to
Priestland, which is to be streighted as marked off,
and from the foord on the Water of Cessnock where a
bridge is to be built by the Bounty of the Shire and
Subscriptions to Kilmarnock, in the old and present
course, by Hurlford Bridge and through Crookedholm."
was decided that tollbars would be erected at Priestland
Bridge and at or near the Braehead of Kilmarnock. It
was resolved to prevent all "crookedness."
30 December 1767 they looked at the road from Beith
to Coldstreem (stet) Bridge. They felt it was not suitable
for upgrading and that a new line would be both easier
and shorter. The old road went over the hill between
the Park Dykes of Overtoun and Cuff. The new road was
to be routed "alongst the Decline of the Overtoun Hill
by entering the east side of the Overtoun lands" and
leaving them to join the old road "near the farmhouses
hard by the second Division of said park."
1774 the second turnpike act for Ayrshire was passed
and the minutes give a detailed account of its implementation.
On the 2nd of June, committees were set up for the various
roads approved in the act and Ministers would read out
a leaflet at church telling people what was happening.
On the 23rd of June, collectors for the Statute Labour
monies were appointed -'Collectors of the Composition
for the Statute Labour.' Apart from the usual landowners,
the school masters at Craigie, Tarbolton, Symington,
Dundonald and Coylton were appointed.
roads were listed as follows: 25. Stewarton to Beith,
by the Old-Hall-Bridge over the Water of Lugton. 26.
The Road from Fail till it joins the Road from Ayr to
Kilmarnock at Riccartown. 27. Coyltown to Galston by
Gadgirth Bridge and Tarboltown, till where it joins
the Road from Kilmarnock to Cumnock, near Lawersbridge.
28. Coyltown by St. Evox to Munktoun. 29. Mauchline
by Millburn to Craigie Castle. 30. Mauchline by the
old Bridge of Barskimming till it joins the Road at
Drongan. 31. Muncktoun to Tarboltown. 32. Kilmamock
by Oldroomford through Dundonald, till it joins the
Road from Ayr to Irvine near the Loans. 33. Kilmaurs
by Corsehousebridge and Oldroomford through Symington,
till it joins the Road between Ayr and Kilmarnock. 34.
The Road from Kilmaurs till it joins the Road from Irvine
to Stewartown, near Cuninghamhead. 35. Hurleford to
Riccartown. 36. Finwicktown to Shawbridge. 37. Old-Cumnock
by Muirkirk to the Confines of the County towards Douglas.
38. Ayr to Dalmellington. 39. Dalmellington to New-Cumnock.
40. Ayr by Maybole to Girvane, which Road divides at
the Redbrae near Maybole into two branches, one of which
goes by Kirkoswald, and the other by Garpinebridge and
Daily. 41. The Road which departs near Muirston from
that Branch of the Road immediately above described
as leading by the Garpine-Bridge and Daily to Girvane,
and leadeth by Kilkerran-Mill to the Village of Barr.
42. Ayr by the new bridge of Doon at Greenan along the
Coast to Cullean, and from thence till it joins the
Road from Kirkoswald to Girvane above Turnberry-Houses.
43. Girvane to the Confines of the County beyond Glenap,
leading to Stranraer; which Road consists of two Branches,
one of them going by Ballantrae, and the other by Colmonel.
44. From the Garpine-Bridge by the Balloch to the Confines
of the County leading towards Wigton. 45. From the Balloch
by the Bar, till it joins the Road from Girvane by Colmonel
to the Confines of the County towards Stanraer. 46.
Old Daily by Penkill till it joins that branch of the
Road from Girvane to the Confines of the County by Colmonel.
47. Maybole to Girvane by Drumelland, Dalquharran and
Killochan. 48. From Ladyburn by Drumgirnanford to join
the Road from Maybole to Girvane, immediately herein
before described, near Dalziellely. 49. Maybole to Dalrymple-Bridge,
and from thence to Kirkmichael. 50. The Road from Dalrymple-Bridge
till it joins the Line of Road from Ayr to Cumnock,
near Coyltoun. 51.The Road leading from the said Bridge
by Carclowie and Doonholm to the Town of Ayr. 52. Maybolle
to Straitoun by Kirkmichael. 53. Crosshill to Straitoun.
54. The Road from Crosshill by Kirkmichael-Bridge till
it join the Road from Maybole to Straitoun. 55. Straitoun
to Dalmellington. 56.Kilwinning by Corsehill Chapel
and Milnburn to Dreghorn. 57. Milnburn by Hygenshouse
to the West End of the Town of lrvine. 58. The Road
which departs from the Road between Ayr and Douglass
at Garranhill, in the Parish of Muirkirk, and leads
from Garranhill aforesaid by Blackside and Waterhead,
and from thence to the Confines of the County of Lanerk.
59. Old Cumnock by Halglenmuir to Crawfordjoan. 60.
From Stewartoun towards Kaimshill, and from that to
Dunlop-House, and from that to the Road leading to Glasgow.
61. The Road from the Cockpitt near Stone-Castle by
Armsheugh, Auchinharvie, and Dunlop, till it joins the
Turnpike Road leading from Glasgow by Nielstoun to Ayrshire.
62. Middletoun by Greenvale and Armsheugh to Kilwinning.
63. The Road from Fail-Bridge to Lochbrown till it joins
the Road from Mauchline to Kilmarnock.
government paid for the construction of the Girvan to
Portpatrick road (no. 43) as it was used extensively
by the army. Once built, maintenance would be by the
County. This was agreed in 1786.
minutes deal with fairly boring matters, but there are
some interesting entries as well as details of roads,
which make them invaluable records. On 27 May 1780,
there was a long petition from inhabitants of Stewarton
and others about the atrocious condition of the roads
from Stewarton westwards to Kilbride (on B778, 1½ miles
west of Stewarton) and Crevoch (Crivoch, two miles to
the west of Stewarton on the minor road running past
Lainshaw towards Crossgates - Crivoch was on the road
running south from Kennox), and the road to the Dowra
Coal Works. For more than 13 years, "these roads have
been totally neglected, not one penny of Statute Money
or repair of any kind have been expended on them, they
are now in the Winter Season and wet weather even for
travelling on horseback impassable, nor can carriages
of any kind pass thereon, to the great hurt of the Petitioners…"
In their opinion the funds had been spent on roads which
were not so useful to the population, and it would have
been better if the neglected roads had been included
in the turnpike act. They refer to them as "publick
kirk and mill roads" and elsewhere as "bye roads" and
it is interesting to see parish or statute labour roads
differentiated in this way.
The ordinary individual of course had to put up with
any roads which were in poor condition but there was
immediate action when the Lord Justice Clerk represented
to a meeting on 27th May 1780 that he had experienced
great difficulty in travelling near Wallacetown and
that the roads must be repaired. It was agreed that
they would be repaired "as far as the first turnpike
where the Edinburgh and Mauchline roads separate." The
Cashier was told to retain the toll moneys (tack duty)
from the trustees until they had repaired the road.
(Maybole) District Trust
was set up in 1774 to deal with the new turnpikes and
statute labour roads in the area.
One feature that stands out from the minutes is the
Trust's attempt to find out what had been happening
with the conversion money for each parish. It seems
that some individuals had been collecting the money
and not putting it into the repair of the roads. In
one case, the Fencibles were brought in to get the money
Loudoun McAdam was a trustee and is mentioned here and
there in the minutes. McClure gives a full account of
his involvement in Ayrshire roads. (13)
Apart from an experiment in road
making on his Sauchrie estate it seems to have been
administrative. His method of road making and his career
as a road maker developed later when he had left Ayrshire.
(see his Remarks
on the Present System of Road Making).
the traveller, tolls would probably have appeared to
be everywhere and hard to avoid, as well as charging
for what had once been free. It was common enough to
try to cut across open country to avoid the tolls but
the increasing amount of enclosed land made this more
and more difficult. McClure gives examples of altercations
which arose when people tried to avoid paying the tolls.
tariff for tolls was contained in the acts and the actual
location of toll points was agreed at meetings. Tolls
were let annually at public auction and these were advertised
in the local papers.
were sometimes the person successful in the auction,
in which case they were known as tacksmen; others were
employed by the investor as toll-gatherers. If one searches
hard enough one can find the names of these people and
even an insight into their personalities. Thus Mackie
paints an idealised picture of a Mrs Gibson at the thatched
cottage at Blacklochlands in Tarbolton parish.
"To see her standing at her cottage gable (with its
little window looking towards the road, whereon for
many years she levied with kindly word the toll tax
from passing vehicles) dressed in her snod attire, and
with her gentle face framed by her snow-white mutch,
she is an ideal type of a clean, douce, old Scots woman,
well worthy of the consideration of those who love to
view the homely phases and quiet dignity of peasant
Contrast this with Peggy Donald of the Loans Toll near
Troon who once refused passage to a Minister on his
way to conduct a service unless he paid, even though
he was exempt. She even held up the Lord Lieutenant
in his state carriage on his way to the Eglinton Tournament
even though he had organised the tournament which brought
her and her husband a huge income in the space of a
few days. (16)
While Mrs Gibson may have been a
gem, toll keepers were not particularly popular. Nor
did they have an easy life being required to turn out
at any hour to open the gates. One useful supplement
to their income was a licence to supply wines and spirits,
no doubt a welcome relief to travellers. Mackintosh
tells the story of Hugh Donald at Loans who took a glass
of whisky out to the driver of a gig, while his two
companions were warming themselves by the fire. Getting
no response from the man, he had a closer look only
to find he was a corpse wrapped in a top coat. The companions
were in fact Resurrectionists who had just dug him out
of the grave.
sample of the 1841 census for four parishes to see who
worked on the roads had disappointing results. In Galston,
the Gauchalland Toll showed the tollkeeper as Marion
Reid, aged 70, born locally. A Janet Boyd, aged 40,
worked at the Braetollbar near Bridgend in Girvan and
a John Orr aged 72 worked the Newhouse toll near Kirkland
in Kilbirnie parish. Four tolls in Irvine are mentioned:
that at Bridgegate was run by Margaret Sloan aged 25;
the Stanecastle Toll was run by John Trodden, aged 35;
Perceton Toll Bridge by William Hutchison, aged 60;
and Williamfield Toll by James Bowie, aged 60. The Irvine
census mentions a David Doak of East Back Road as a
roadmaker. Although the turnpikes had clerks as well
as men working on the roads these were not identified
as such and presumably come under general headings such
were different tariffs under both Acts for each road,
three for the first Act and four for the second.
(17) In August 1774, a John Girvan,
"Tacksman of the Tollbar betwixt Newtoun and Prestwick"
complained that people were demanding to be charged
under the old or new act as it suited them so the Committee
decided the charges under the new act would apply.
example of a tariff given in the 1774 Act was:
For every Coach, Chariot, Berlin, Landau, Calash, Chaise.
Chair or Hearse drawn by 6 horses, mares, geldings or
4 -do- 6/-
3 -do- 5/-
2 -do- 3/-
every Wagon, Wain, Cart or other wheel carriage drawn
by 6 horses, oxen or other beasts of burden 12/-
every sledge without wheels 1/-
every horse, mare, gelding, mule or ass, laden or unladen
and not drawing 6d
For every drove of oxen or meat cattle 1/6 per score
and so in proportion for any greater or less number
For every drove of horses or fillies unshod 3/6 per
score and so in proportion for any greater or less number
every drove of Calves, Sheep, Lambs, Hogs or Goats 10d
per score and so in proportion for any greater or less
There were reduced rates for some loads such as coal.
Pedestrians were exempt as were vehicles and animals
being used for road repair work and the repair of streets
in Irvine, Ayr and Kilmarnock. Other exemptions were
mill journeys, going to church - ministers were always
exempt, and the carrying of lime, manure and hay. Soldiers
on the march were also exempt.
the financial returns from an investment could be considerable
there was still some risk. It was particularly difficult
when railways were built and a lot of traffic disappeared.
Ultimately tolls became unviable and roads had to be
taken into public care.
Commissioners of Supply continued their work on bridges
throughout this period. In 1831 they were required by
the Ayrshire County Road Act to meet with the road trustees
to assess the rate but the trustees took over responsibility
for the disbursement of the fund. This arrangement continued
until the Act of 1878 when County Road Trustees were
established for all parts of the county, excluding large
towns. Whilst Commissioners of Supply remained in post
by virtue of being landowners, trustees were elected
and from them the County Road Board of 30 members was
formed. This was superseded in 1889 when the Council
Council was formed.
Strawhorn, The Background to Burns - Farming in 18th
Century Ayrshire, AANHS Collections, 2nd Series, Vol.3,
2. Lebon, The Beginnings
of the Agrarian and Industrial Revolutions in Ayrshire,
Ayrshire in the Time of Burns, AANHS Collections, Vol.
Ayrshire in the Age of Improvement, ed. David McClure,
Ayrshire Monographs No. 27, AANHS, 2002
see David McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, Ayrshire Monographs
No.13, AANHS, 1994 for many details of Ayrshire turnpikes
see also A K Goodwin, Road Development in Ayrshire,
M Litt thesis, University of Strathclyde, 1970 which
is a detailed socio-economic study of the turnpikes
(copies held in Ayrshire Archives and Carnegie Library,
James Ferguson, The Law of Roads, Streets and Rights
of Way, Bridges, and Ferries in Scotland, Edinburgh,
1904, pps 112-115 7.
Geo. III, c.106
14 Geo.III, c.109
McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.22-23
CO3.4.1, County of Ayr Road Trustee Records, July 1767
to June 1805 - held in Ayrshire Archives
McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.31-32
McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.39-44
McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.37,38
D Mackie, Ayrshire Village Sketches and Poems, Kilmarnock,
Ian M Mackintosh, Memories of Old Troon, Ayr
McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.49,50
McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.34,35