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Roads and Tracks of Ayrshire

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THE TURNPIKE ERA

Turnpike Roads

1766 Act

1774 Act

Carrick (Maybole) District Trust

Tolls

Fords and Bridges

 

Text only file

 

Turnpike Roads

In the latter half of the 18th century, massive changes in the economy of Scotland led to major improvements in the life of the people. The new enclosures and better farming methods along with the exploitation of mineral resources and the development of industry resulted in a growth of population and better health and living conditions. The Act of Union in 1707 had a crucial part in this as it opened up the large markets of England to Scotland.

 

Improved roads were an essential part of this revolution, helping to stimulate all aspects of the economy and opening new horizons to people by making travel much easier than before. The system which allowed these new roads to be built was the turnpike system, tolls being levied to meet the considerable cost of building them.

 

Before looking at this system in detail it is worth reminding ourselves of what Ayrshire looked like in the early 1700's and how it had changed over the next 50 years or so. It was a bleak and desolate landscape, almost treeless, with mean hamlets surrounded by a few rough fields and connected by poor tracks. The people were poor and had a hard life, especially in winter when food was scarce. By 1800, however, the landscape had an ordered cultivated look. There were now trees and regular fields with good crops, and the cottages had improved. Towns were thriving and trade had picked up because of the new roads. (1,2,3)

 

The system which led to these new roads was realistic in the circumstances of the time. For 200 years there had been legislation and a system for road building which had failed, or at least did not encourage economic growth. There had also been an understandable reluctance to provide roads which strangers could use (and damage) without charge. The turnpike system met these difficulties: capital could be raised, competent road builders could be employed and most importantly, the cost of building and maintaining the roads would be met by the collection of tolls.

 

To build a turnpike, an Act of Parliament was required and once passed, allowed a trust to be formed which could then arrange for the roads to be built. Of the hundreds of Acts across the United Kingdom, two in particular applied to Ayrshire. The first Act, that of 1766, had in fact first been proposed in 1758. It dealt with 22 roads, mostly north of the Ayr - Cumnock line The second Act was in 1774 and dealt with the southern part of the county. There were further Acts in 1805, 1809, 1818, 1827 and 1847. The 1805 Act added a further 35 roads and that of 1818 added roads in central and south Ayrshire. (4,5) Besides these local Acts, there were more general Acts that laid down regulations on different aspects of turnpikes and would apply to local Acts at the time. Thus, there were Acts in 1758, 1823 and 1831. The 1831 General Turnpike Act dealt comprehensively with the whole system, from the operation of a trust to exemptions from tolls (6)

 

1766 Act

Once the 1766 Act (7) was passed, a Trust was formed. Records of this Trust are extant and an idea can be gained from these of how the Act was implemented, and how the roads were administered. To be a trustee, a person had to have, either in his own right, or in the right of his wife, estate valued at 800 Pounds or to receive an annual income of 40 Pounds from land. The later 1774 Act (8) gave the trustees power to borrow money for road making.

 

The Act dealt with 24 roads with a total of 255 miles. It named the trustees of whom there were 135, set tolls and penalties for evading these, permitted the raising of capital and the conversion of the statute labour into a financial payment. It also allowed milestones to be erected and dealt with the management of the trust.

 

Turnpikes were funded in three ways:

- by using the conversion money from statute labour

- by subscription where the lender could get interest on the loan or a proportion of the toll

- by a person making it at their own expense and getting a proportion of the conversion money from each parish through which the road ran.

 

It was always intended that the toll system would be temporary; tolls could be removed once all finances had been repaid and the roads were in good condition. This of course never happened. It was always a risky business getting involved in financing roads or as a tradesman building them. McClure gives examples of long delays in payment. (9)

 

The first meeting was held in Ayr on 14 July 1767 with 17 trustees in attendance.(10) A surveyor was appointed - David Lambert Gardener of Kilmarnock, and a sub-committee was set up to look at a road from Kilmarnock to Ayr and what it might cost. The Surveyor had considerable responsibilities, viz:

-to view all roads, common highways, tunnels, causeways and pavements

-to arrange compensation for land

-to make payments and account for these to the Trustees

-to account to the Justices for any neglect

-to obtain necessary materials -to organise statue labour

-to serve notice on any who created a nuisance.

 

The next meeting on 20 August 1767 was attended by 35 people and the Earl of Loudoun was chosen as President. As the sub-committee from the last meeting had not agreed on a route, a new sub-committee was formed and it was agreed that the new road should be 30 feet broad and 16 inches thick.

 

Committees were also set up to look at the 24 routes approved by the Act. There were 21 committees in total. The routes as listed were:

1. Ayr to Irvine. 2. Ayr to Kilmarnock. 3. Irvine by Stewarton towards Pollockstoun. 4. Irvine to Saltcoats. 5. Irvine to Kilmarnock. 6. Kilmarnock by Kilmaurs to Stewarton. 7. Stewarton to Whitehouse. 8. Stewarton to Pollockstoun via Neilston. 9. Ayr by Ochiltree, Old and New Cumnock towards Sanquhar. 10. Ayr by Galston towards Strathaven. 11. Astonpapple east of Newmilns to Overmuir. 12. Ayr by Mauchline, Sorn and Muirkirk towards Douglas. 13. Mauchline to Galston. 14. Kilmarnock to Galston. 15. Waterside of Loudoun towards Kingswell. 16. Kilmarnock by Kingswell to Flockbridge and 17. from the march of the shire towards Eaglesham to where it joins the road leading from Kingswell to Flockbridge. 18. Kilmarnock by Mauchline to Old Cumnock. 19. Galston by Sorn to Old Cumnock. 20. Kilwinning by Dalry and Bieth(stet) to Clarksbridge. 21. Dalry to Maichbridge . 22. Kilwinning by Bieth to Caldstream bridge. 23. Saltcoats by Largs to Kellybridge. 24. Irvine by Stair Bridge to Dalmellington.

Only two records remain from these committees: Kilmarnock to Mauchline and Old Cumnock; and Irvine by Stewarton to Polloktoun, Irvine to Saltcoats and Irvine to Kilmarnock.

 

On the 13th October 1767, reports were made on possible routes between Kilmarnock and Ayr. "The Committee having met at Kilmarnock on the day appointed did perambulate the ground from Kilmarnock in the nearest and most predictable way for a Turnpike Road having with them the person employed to survey and measure the same. Also the Road by way of Munktoun going betwixt Symington and Helentounhills and from thence by way of Spittalhill to Riccarton; and also to measure the road from Ayr by way of Adamtoun Underwood Craigie Mains Hairlaw and from thence to Riccarton." It was noted that surveyors had been ordered to measure exactly these lines of road but their figures were very erroneous. The Committee had then approached a Mr John Foulis to do this work but there had been a delay as he had thought it was not practicable until "the Corns were got off the ground." They now had measurements which subject to a final check were 9 miles, 4 furlongs and 27 falls for the road through "Wallacestreet by Adamtoun Underwood Craigie Mains Hairlaw East of Treesbank to Riccartoun."

 

A route by "Pow Bridge from thence in the present road to Muncktoun striking off by the middle of that town to the West of the Dovecoat to the north end of the Rosemount inclosure near the present road, thence through Helentoun park by the east end of Symingtoun enclosures to Spittlehill and thence to Riccarton" measured out at 9 miles, 3 furlongs and 13 falls. Another possible route through "Prestwick Moss and Orangefields Pillarfield to the east edge of Helentoun hill and from thence to Riccarton" was 9 miles, 2 furlongs and 30 falls. The roads would have been about 23-26 feet wide although 30 feet was the recommended width from 1771 onwards. They were made of broken whinstone and gravel to a depth of 12 to 18 inches.

 

On 28 October 1767, they looked at the above lines of road between Ayr and Kilmarnock and it is interesting to see the thought processes followed in making their choice of the best route. These were: The first of the above routes, viz. Present road by Munkton, Symington and the ford near Caprington to Kilmarnock 11 miles. The suggestion was to alter this road by avoiding the "crooks" and run straight to the ford near the Blind Coal Ford and by Lord Glencairn's House and Langlands yeard dike. It would then go via Strand or Croft Street to Kilmarnock Cross. This line would be 9 miles, 3 furlongs and 2 falls. The minute states that "from Riccarton Bridge to Kilmarnock the road will go near in a straight line to the end of the Sand Bed, along which by the Bridge of Kilmarnock the Way is narrow, dangerous and difficult of access into the Town, especially for carriages and to make it safe will cost near £200. A Way is therefore proposed through a street behind the Sandbed, and by a Bridge to be built over the Water of Kilmarnock in a line with a passage into the Cross." It says that some houses would have to be demolished due to the narrowness and crookedness of the streets.

 

This option was thought unfeasible. The "pulls" were greater, a bridge at Blindcoalford would cost as much as option 3, and there would be difficulty laying the road once the River Irvine had been crossed. The existing road they were looking at would have been the one shown on Roy that went through Symington.

 

The second route, viz. Wallace Street - Newton Common - south-east of Prestwick - Orangefields Pillar Park - south east of Adamtoun Underwood - Craigie Mains - Hairlaw - east of Treesbank Planting - Riccartoun. This was seriously considered as there was an existing road along almost all its length and it was similar in length to the above two proposals with similar "pulls". There would be some expense in the Prestwick stretch. As to what the existing road was, there used to be a road to the south east of Prestwick that ran where the airport is now. It joined the road at Brierside east of Monkton. A mile or so north east of this, the minor road that runs from Low Wardneuk past Underwood to Craigie Mains would fit the description.

 

From here there might have had to be a new stretch up to Harelaw but beyond here it may have been intended to join the Craigie road that ran past Treesbank into Riccarton.

 

The third of the above routes, viz. Wallace Street - south east of Prestwick - Powburn Bridge - present road to Munktoun - north end of Rosemount Inclosures adjoining the present high road leaving the Dovecoats Hill of Monktoun on the south east and from the end of Rosemount inclosures to the south east of the plantings of Symington, avoiding the rising ground there - Spittlehill - Riccarton 9 miles 3 furlongs 13 roods. The Committee chose this option because the existing road could in part be made up or exchanged. Fewer bridges would be required; and there would be no need for a raised road over meadowland. This must be the older A77 line that ran through Monkton and left the present road at Spittalhill to run directly into Kilmarnock.

 

The fourth route, viz. Wallace Street - Newton Common - south-east of Prestwick - Orangefields Pillar Park - Kalmares Mount plantation - east of Helentoun Hill - the Single Tree - Riccartoun 9 miles 5 furlongs 30 roods Scots. They rejected this option because some of the land required was too costly, a number of bridges would have to be built, and there was marshy land near Prestwick where the landowner might not permit a deviation to avoid this. There was also no road near to this proposed route, which could be exchanged for the necessary land. It is not clear if the first part of this route is the same as the second route above where no mention was made of the marshy land near Prestwick. Beyond Orangefields (just south-east of Monkton and now part of the airport) it would probably have run a few hundred metres east of the present A77 line.

 

At the same meeting they looked at the route between Riccarton and Galston as well as the Ayr to Ochiltree and Old and New Cumnock roads. With regard to the Ayr to Ochiltree route there was an existing road from Byreburn to Ochiltree by Gibston and Hoodston and a new road from Waggonford through the lower part of Drongan Laigh Park to the height of Trabbochmine. They arranged to inspect the Hoodston road, the road through Tarelgin park and the road by Waggonford and report back on costs. On 1 October 1767, they mention that a line of road would be marked out by stobbing out or hammering stakes into the ground. "They caused stob out the Road from the foord in the Bryerburn by the Waggon foord …to the corner of the Earl of Glencairn's Plantation where the Line met the Line from the Bryerburn by the New Bridge of Milm and that the one measures 5 miles, 3 furlongs, 24 falls and 12 links." They also checked for suitable materials nearby, and that horses could cope with the hills.

 

On 26 October 1767, they thought the road by the new bridge of Milm and Hoodston was too expensive. The road by Tarelgin was preferable as it avoided a "pull" - a bridge would be built a few falls above the Waggonford. Those present agreed to provide land free of charge when the road went through their property.

There is an entry giving the cost of a road from Ayr to Mauchline as £80 per mile. An entry on 12 November 1767 dealt with the Priestland Road. "It should go much about the present direction from the Bounds of the Shire to the Water of Cessnock except from Gorsebraehead to Priestland, which is to be streighted as marked off, and from the foord on the Water of Cessnock where a bridge is to be built by the Bounty of the Shire and Subscriptions to Kilmarnock, in the old and present course, by Hurlford Bridge and through Crookedholm."

It was decided that tollbars would be erected at Priestland Bridge and at or near the Braehead of Kilmarnock. It was resolved to prevent all "crookedness."

 

On 30 December 1767 they looked at the road from Beith to Coldstreem (stet) Bridge. They felt it was not suitable for upgrading and that a new line would be both easier and shorter. The old road went over the hill between the Park Dykes of Overtoun and Cuff. The new road was to be routed "alongst the Decline of the Overtoun Hill by entering the east side of the Overtoun lands" and leaving them to join the old road "near the farmhouses hard by the second Division of said park."

 

1774 Act

In 1774 the second turnpike act for Ayrshire was passed and the minutes give a detailed account of its implementation. On the 2nd of June, committees were set up for the various roads approved in the act and Ministers would read out a leaflet at church telling people what was happening. On the 23rd of June, collectors for the Statute Labour monies were appointed -'Collectors of the Composition for the Statute Labour.' Apart from the usual landowners, the school masters at Craigie, Tarbolton, Symington, Dundonald and Coylton were appointed.

 

The roads were listed as follows: 25. Stewarton to Beith, by the Old-Hall-Bridge over the Water of Lugton. 26. The Road from Fail till it joins the Road from Ayr to Kilmarnock at Riccartown. 27. Coyltown to Galston by Gadgirth Bridge and Tarboltown, till where it joins the Road from Kilmarnock to Cumnock, near Lawersbridge. 28. Coyltown by St. Evox to Munktoun. 29. Mauchline by Millburn to Craigie Castle. 30. Mauchline by the old Bridge of Barskimming till it joins the Road at Drongan. 31. Muncktoun to Tarboltown. 32. Kilmamock by Oldroomford through Dundonald, till it joins the Road from Ayr to Irvine near the Loans. 33. Kilmaurs by Corsehousebridge and Oldroomford through Symington, till it joins the Road between Ayr and Kilmarnock. 34. The Road from Kilmaurs till it joins the Road from Irvine to Stewartown, near Cuninghamhead. 35. Hurleford to Riccartown. 36. Finwicktown to Shawbridge. 37. Old-Cumnock by Muirkirk to the Confines of the County towards Douglas. 38. Ayr to Dalmellington. 39. Dalmellington to New-Cumnock. 40. Ayr by Maybole to Girvane, which Road divides at the Redbrae near Maybole into two branches, one of which goes by Kirkoswald, and the other by Garpinebridge and Daily. 41. The Road which departs near Muirston from that Branch of the Road immediately above described as leading by the Garpine-Bridge and Daily to Girvane, and leadeth by Kilkerran-Mill to the Village of Barr. 42. Ayr by the new bridge of Doon at Greenan along the Coast to Cullean, and from thence till it joins the Road from Kirkoswald to Girvane above Turnberry-Houses. 43. Girvane to the Confines of the County beyond Glenap, leading to Stranraer; which Road consists of two Branches, one of them going by Ballantrae, and the other by Colmonel. 44. From the Garpine-Bridge by the Balloch to the Confines of the County leading towards Wigton. 45. From the Balloch by the Bar, till it joins the Road from Girvane by Colmonel to the Confines of the County towards Stanraer. 46. Old Daily by Penkill till it joins that branch of the Road from Girvane to the Confines of the County by Colmonel. 47. Maybole to Girvane by Drumelland, Dalquharran and Killochan. 48. From Ladyburn by Drumgirnanford to join the Road from Maybole to Girvane, immediately herein before described, near Dalziellely. 49. Maybole to Dalrymple-Bridge, and from thence to Kirkmichael. 50. The Road from Dalrymple-Bridge till it joins the Line of Road from Ayr to Cumnock, near Coyltoun. 51.The Road leading from the said Bridge by Carclowie and Doonholm to the Town of Ayr. 52. Maybolle to Straitoun by Kirkmichael. 53. Crosshill to Straitoun. 54. The Road from Crosshill by Kirkmichael-Bridge till it join the Road from Maybole to Straitoun. 55. Straitoun to Dalmellington. 56.Kilwinning by Corsehill Chapel and Milnburn to Dreghorn. 57. Milnburn by Hygenshouse to the West End of the Town of lrvine. 58. The Road which departs from the Road between Ayr and Douglass at Garranhill, in the Parish of Muirkirk, and leads from Garranhill aforesaid by Blackside and Waterhead, and from thence to the Confines of the County of Lanerk. 59. Old Cumnock by Halglenmuir to Crawfordjoan. 60. From Stewartoun towards Kaimshill, and from that to Dunlop-House, and from that to the Road leading to Glasgow. 61. The Road from the Cockpitt near Stone-Castle by Armsheugh, Auchinharvie, and Dunlop, till it joins the Turnpike Road leading from Glasgow by Nielstoun to Ayrshire. 62. Middletoun by Greenvale and Armsheugh to Kilwinning. 63. The Road from Fail-Bridge to Lochbrown till it joins the Road from Mauchline to Kilmarnock.

 

The government paid for the construction of the Girvan to Portpatrick road (no. 43) as it was used extensively by the army. Once built, maintenance would be by the County. This was agreed in 1786. (11)

 

The minutes deal with fairly boring matters, but there are some interesting entries as well as details of roads, which make them invaluable records. On 27 May 1780, there was a long petition from inhabitants of Stewarton and others about the atrocious condition of the roads from Stewarton westwards to Kilbride (on B778, 1½ miles west of Stewarton) and Crevoch (Crivoch, two miles to the west of Stewarton on the minor road running past Lainshaw towards Crossgates - Crivoch was on the road running south from Kennox), and the road to the Dowra Coal Works. For more than 13 years, "these roads have been totally neglected, not one penny of Statute Money or repair of any kind have been expended on them, they are now in the Winter Season and wet weather even for travelling on horseback impassable, nor can carriages of any kind pass thereon, to the great hurt of the Petitioners…" In their opinion the funds had been spent on roads which were not so useful to the population, and it would have been better if the neglected roads had been included in the turnpike act. They refer to them as "publick kirk and mill roads" and elsewhere as "bye roads" and it is interesting to see parish or statute labour roads differentiated in this way.

 

The ordinary individual of course had to put up with any roads which were in poor condition but there was immediate action when the Lord Justice Clerk represented to a meeting on 27th May 1780 that he had experienced great difficulty in travelling near Wallacetown and that the roads must be repaired. It was agreed that they would be repaired "as far as the first turnpike where the Edinburgh and Mauchline roads separate." The Cashier was told to retain the toll moneys (tack duty) from the trustees until they had repaired the road.

 

 

Carrick (Maybole) District Trust

This was set up in 1774 to deal with the new turnpikes and statute labour roads in the area. (12) One feature that stands out from the minutes is the Trust's attempt to find out what had been happening with the conversion money for each parish. It seems that some individuals had been collecting the money and not putting it into the repair of the roads. In one case, the Fencibles were brought in to get the money back.

 

John Loudoun McAdam was a trustee and is mentioned here and there in the minutes. McClure gives a full account of his involvement in Ayrshire roads. (13) Apart from an experiment in road making on his Sauchrie estate it seems to have been administrative. His method of road making and his career as a road maker developed later when he had left Ayrshire. (see his Remarks on the Present System of Road Making).

 

Tolls

To the traveller, tolls would probably have appeared to be everywhere and hard to avoid, as well as charging for what had once been free. It was common enough to try to cut across open country to avoid the tolls but the increasing amount of enclosed land made this more and more difficult. McClure gives examples of altercations which arose when people tried to avoid paying the tolls. (14)

 

The tariff for tolls was contained in the acts and the actual location of toll points was agreed at meetings. Tolls were let annually at public auction and these were advertised in the local papers.

 

Tollkeepers were sometimes the person successful in the auction, in which case they were known as tacksmen; others were employed by the investor as toll-gatherers. If one searches hard enough one can find the names of these people and even an insight into their personalities. Thus Mackie paints an idealised picture of a Mrs Gibson at the thatched cottage at Blacklochlands in Tarbolton parish. (15) "To see her standing at her cottage gable (with its little window looking towards the road, whereon for many years she levied with kindly word the toll tax from passing vehicles) dressed in her snod attire, and with her gentle face framed by her snow-white mutch, she is an ideal type of a clean, douce, old Scots woman, well worthy of the consideration of those who love to view the homely phases and quiet dignity of peasant life."

 

Contrast this with Peggy Donald of the Loans Toll near Troon who once refused passage to a Minister on his way to conduct a service unless he paid, even though he was exempt. She even held up the Lord Lieutenant in his state carriage on his way to the Eglinton Tournament even though he had organised the tournament which brought her and her husband a huge income in the space of a few days. (16) While Mrs Gibson may have been a gem, toll keepers were not particularly popular. Nor did they have an easy life being required to turn out at any hour to open the gates. One useful supplement to their income was a licence to supply wines and spirits, no doubt a welcome relief to travellers. Mackintosh (16) tells the story of Hugh Donald at Loans who took a glass of whisky out to the driver of a gig, while his two companions were warming themselves by the fire. Getting no response from the man, he had a closer look only to find he was a corpse wrapped in a top coat. The companions were in fact Resurrectionists who had just dug him out of the grave.

 

A sample of the 1841 census for four parishes to see who worked on the roads had disappointing results. In Galston, the Gauchalland Toll showed the tollkeeper as Marion Reid, aged 70, born locally. A Janet Boyd, aged 40, worked at the Braetollbar near Bridgend in Girvan and a John Orr aged 72 worked the Newhouse toll near Kirkland in Kilbirnie parish. Four tolls in Irvine are mentioned: that at Bridgegate was run by Margaret Sloan aged 25; the Stanecastle Toll was run by John Trodden, aged 35; Perceton Toll Bridge by William Hutchison, aged 60; and Williamfield Toll by James Bowie, aged 60. The Irvine census mentions a David Doak of East Back Road as a roadmaker. Although the turnpikes had clerks as well as men working on the roads these were not identified as such and presumably come under general headings such as labourer.

 

There were different tariffs under both Acts for each road, three for the first Act and four for the second. (17) In August 1774, a John Girvan, "Tacksman of the Tollbar betwixt Newtoun and Prestwick" complained that people were demanding to be charged under the old or new act as it suited them so the Committee decided the charges under the new act would apply.

 

An example of a tariff given in the 1774 Act was:

For every Coach, Chariot, Berlin, Landau, Calash, Chaise. Chair or Hearse drawn by 6 horses, mares, geldings or mules 8/-

4 -do- 6/-

3 -do- 5/-

2 -do- 3/-

1 -do- 1/6

For every Wagon, Wain, Cart or other wheel carriage drawn by 6 horses, oxen or other beasts of burden 12/-

5-do- 10/-

4-do- 8/-

3-do- 4/-

2-do- 2/-

1-do- 1/-

For every sledge without wheels 1/-

For every horse, mare, gelding, mule or ass, laden or unladen and not drawing 6d

For every drove of oxen or meat cattle 1/6 per score and so in proportion for any greater or less number

For every drove of horses or fillies unshod 3/6 per score and so in proportion for any greater or less number

For every drove of Calves, Sheep, Lambs, Hogs or Goats 10d per score and so in proportion for any greater or less number.

 

There were reduced rates for some loads such as coal. Pedestrians were exempt as were vehicles and animals being used for road repair work and the repair of streets in Irvine, Ayr and Kilmarnock. Other exemptions were mill journeys, going to church - ministers were always exempt, and the carrying of lime, manure and hay. Soldiers on the march were also exempt. (18)

 

Although the financial returns from an investment could be considerable there was still some risk. It was particularly difficult when railways were built and a lot of traffic disappeared. Ultimately tolls became unviable and roads had to be taken into public care.

 

Fords and Bridges

The Commissioners of Supply continued their work on bridges throughout this period. In 1831 they were required by the Ayrshire County Road Act to meet with the road trustees to assess the rate but the trustees took over responsibility for the disbursement of the fund. This arrangement continued until the Act of 1878 when County Road Trustees were established for all parts of the county, excluding large towns. Whilst Commissioners of Supply remained in post by virtue of being landowners, trustees were elected and from them the County Road Board of 30 members was formed. This was superseded in 1889 when the Council Council was formed.

 

References

1. Strawhorn, The Background to Burns - Farming in 18th Century Ayrshire, AANHS Collections, 2nd Series, Vol.3, 1955

2. Lebon, The Beginnings of the Agrarian and Industrial Revolutions in Ayrshire, Ayrshire in the Time of Burns, AANHS Collections, Vol. 5, 1959

3. Ayrshire in the Age of Improvement, ed. David McClure, Ayrshire Monographs No. 27, AANHS, 2002

4. see David McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, Ayrshire Monographs No.13, AANHS, 1994 for many details of Ayrshire turnpikes

5. see also A K Goodwin, Road Development in Ayrshire, M Litt thesis, University of Strathclyde, 1970 which is a detailed socio-economic study of the turnpikes (copies held in Ayrshire Archives and Carnegie Library, Ayr)

6. James Ferguson, The Law of Roads, Streets and Rights of Way, Bridges, and Ferries in Scotland, Edinburgh, 1904, pps 112-115 7.

7 Geo. III, c.106

8. 14 Geo.III, c.109

9. McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.22-23

10. CO3.4.1, County of Ayr Road Trustee Records, July 1767 to June 1805 - held in Ayrshire Archives

11. McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.31-32

12. CO3/5/x

13. McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.39-44

14. McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.37,38

15. D Mackie, Ayrshire Village Sketches and Poems, Kilmarnock, 1896

16. Ian M Mackintosh, Memories of Old Troon, Ayr

17. McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.49,50

18. McClure, Tolls and Tacksmen, p.34,35

 

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